OF THE EARTH
ABDOMEN (Lat. abdo, I conceal). The posterior cavity of
the body, containing the intestines and others of the viscera. In
many Invertebrates there is no separation of the body-cavity into
thorax and abdomen, and it is only in the higher Annulosa
that a distinct abdomen can be said to exist.
ABERRANT (Lat. aberro, I wander away). Departing from the
ABNORMAL (Lat. ab, from; norma, a rule). Irregular;
deviating from the ordinary standard.
ACRODUS (Gr. akros, high; odous, tooth). A genus
of the Cestraciont fishes, so called from the elevated teeth.
ACROGENS (Gr. akros, high; gennao, I produce).
Plants which increase in height by additions made to the summit
of the stem by the union of the bases of the leaves.
ACROTRETA (Gr. akros, high; tretos, pierced). A
genus of Brachiopods, so called from the presence of a foramen
at the summit of the shell.
ACTINOCRINUS (Gr. aktin, a ray; krinon, a lily).
A genus of Crinoids.
ACTINOZOA (Gr. aktin, a ray; and zoön, an animal).
That division of the Cœlenterata of which the
Sea-anemones may be taken as the type.
ÆGLINA (Æglé, a sea-nymph). A genus of
ÆPIORNIS (Gr. aipus, huge; ornis, bird). A genus
of gigantic Cursorial birds.
AGNOSTUS (Gr. a, not; gignosko, I know). A genus
ALCES (Lat. alces, elk). The European Elk or Moose.
ALECTO (the proper name of one of the Furies). A genus of
ALETHOPTERIS (Gr. alethes, true; pteris, fern).
A genus of Ferns.
ALGÆ. (Lat. alga, a marine plant). The order of plants
comprising the Sea-weeds and many fresh-water plants.
ALVEOLUS (Lat. alvus, belly). Applied to the sockets of
AMBLYPTERUS (Gr. amblus, blunt; pteron, fin). An
order of Ganoid Fishes.
AMBONYCHIA (Gr. ambon, a boss; onux, claw). A genus
of Palæozoic Bivalves.
AMBULACRA (Lat. ambulacrum, a place for walking). The
perforated spaces or "avenues" through which are protruded the
tube-feet, by means of which locomotion is effected in the
AMMONITIDÆ. A family of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods, so called
from the resemblance of the shell of the type-genus, Ammonites,
to the horns of the Egyptian God, Jupiter-Ammon.
AMORPHOZOA (Gr. a, without; morphe, shape;
zoön, animal). A name sometimes used to designate the
AMPHIBIA (Gr. amphi, both; bios, life). The Frogs,
Newts, and the like, which have gills when young, but can always
breathe air directly when adult.
AMPHICYON (Gr. amphi, both—implying doubt; kuon,
dog). An extinct genus of Carnivora.
AMPHILESTES (Gr. amphi, both; lestes, a thief). A
genus of Jurassic Mammals.
AMPHISPONGIA (Gr. amphi, both; spoggos, sponge).
A genus of Silurian sponges.
AMPHISTEGINA (Gr. amphi, both; stegé, roof). A
genus of Foraminifera.
AMPHITHERIUM (Gr. amphi, both; therion, beast).
A genus of Jurassic Mammals.
AMPHITRAGULUS (Gr. amphi, both; dim. of tragos,
goat). An extinct genus related to the living Musk-deer.
AMPLEXUS (Lat. an Ambrace). A genus of Rugose Corals.
AMPYX (Gr. ampux, a wreath or wheel). A genus of
ANARTHROPODA (Gr. a. without; arthros, a joint;
pous, foot). That division of Annulose animals
in which there are no articulated appendages.
ANCHITHERIUM (Gr. agchi, near; therion, beast). An
extinct genus of Mammals.
ANCYLOCERAS (Gr. agkulos, crooked; ceras, horn).
A genus of Ammonitidœ.
ANCYLOTHERIUM (Gr. agkulos, crooked; therion, beast).
An extinct genus of Edentate Mammals.
ANDRIAS (Gr. andrias, image of man). An extinct genus of
ANGIOSPERMS (Gr. angeion, a vessel; sperma, seed).
Plants which have their seeds enclosed in a seed-vessel.
ANNELIDA (a Gallicised form of Annulata). The Ringed Worms,
which form one of the divisions of the Anarthropoda.
ANNULARIA (Lat. annulus, a ring). A genus of Palæozoic
plants, with leaves in whorls.
ANNULOSA (Lat. annulus). The sub-kingdom comprising the
Anarthropoda and the Arthropoda or Articulata,
in all of which the body is more or less evidently composed of
a succession of rings.
ANOMODONTIA (Gr. anomos, irregular; odous, tooth).
An extinct order of Reptiles, often called Dicynodontia.
ANOMURA (Gr. anomos, irregular; oura, tail). A
tribe of Decapod Crustacea, of which the Hermit-crab is
ANOPLOTHERIDÆ (Gr. anoplos, unarmed; ther, beast).
A family of Tertiary Ungulates.
ANOURA (Gr. a, without; oura, tail). The order
of Amphibia comprising the Frogs and Toads, in which the
adult is destitute of a tail. Often, called Batrachia.
ANTENNÆ (Lat. antenna, a yard-arm). The jointed horns
or feelers possessed by the majority of the Articulata.
ANTENNULES (dim. of Antennœ). Applied to the smaller
pair of antennæ in the Crustacea.
ANTHRACOSAURUS (Gr. anthrax, coal; saura, lizard).
A genus of Labyrinthodont Amphibians.
ANTHRAPALÆMON (Gr. anthrax, coal; palœmon, a
prawn—originally a proper name). A genus of long-tailed
Crustaceans from the Coal-measures.
ANTLERS. Properly the branches of the horns of the Deer tribe
(Cervidœ), but generally applied to the entire horns.
APIOCRINIDÆ (Gr. apion, a pear; krinon, lily). A
family of Crinoids—the "Pear-encrinites."
APTERYX (Gr. a, without; pterux, a wing). A wingless
bird of New Zealand, belong to the order Cursores.
AQUEOUS (Lat. aqua, water). Formed in or by water.
ARACHNIDA (Gr. arachne, a spider). A class of the
Articulata, comprising Spiders, Scorpions, and allied
ARBORESCENT. Branched like a tree.
ARCHÆOCIDARIS (Gr. archaios, ancient; Lat. cidaris,
a diadem). A Palæozoic genus of Sea-urchins, related to the
ARCHÆOCYATHUS (Gr. archaios, ancient; kuathos, cup).
A genus of Palæozoic fossils allied to the Sponges.
ARCHÆOPTERYX (Gr. archaios, ancient; pterux, a
wing). The singular fossil bird which alone constitutes the order
of the Saururœ.
ARCTOCYON (Gr. arctos, bear; kuon, dog). An extinct
genus of Carnivora.
ARENACEOUS. Sandy, or composed of grains of sand.
ARENICOLITES (Lat. arena, sand; colo, I inhabit). A
genus founded on burrows supposed to be formed by worms resembling
the living Lobworms (Arenicola).
ARTICULATA (Lat. articulus, a joint). A division of the
animal kingdom, comprising Insects, Centipedes, Spiders, and
Crustaceans, characterised by the possession of jointed bodies
or jointed limbs. The term Arthropoda is now more usually
ARTIODACTYLA (Gr. artios, even; daktulos, a finger
or toe). A division of the hoofed quadrupeds (Ungulata)
in which each foot has an even number of toes (two or four).
ASAPHUS (Gr. Asaphes, obscure). A genus of Trilobites.
ASCOCERAS (Gr. askos, a leather bottle; keras, horn).
A genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
ASIPHONATE. Not possessing a respiratory tube or siphon. (Applied
to a division of the Lamellibranchiate Molluscs.)
ASTEROID (Gr. aster, a star; and eidos, form).
Star-shaped, or possessing radiating lobes or rays like a
ASTEROIDEA. An order of Echinodermata, comprising the
Star-fishes, characterised by their rayed form.
ASTEROPHYLLITES (Gr. aster, a star; phullon, leaf).
A genus of Palæozoic plants, with leaves in whorls.
ASTRÆIDÆ (Gr. Astrœa, a proper name).
The family of the Star-corals.
ASTYLOSPONGIA (Gr. a, without; stulos, a column;
spoggos, a sponge). A genus of Silurian Sponges.
ATHYRIS (Gr. a, without; thura, door). A genus of
ATRYPA (Gr. a, without; trupa, a hole). A genus
AVES (Lat. avis, a bird). The class of the Birds.
AVICULA (Lat. a little bird). The genus of Bivalve Molluscs
comprising the Pearl-oysters.
AXOPHYLLUM (Gr. axon, a pivot; phullon, a leaf).
A genus of Rugose Corals.
AZOIC (Gr. a, without; zoé, life). Destitute of
traces of living beings.
BACULITES (Lat. baculum, a staff). A genus of the
BALÆNA (Lat. a whale). The genus of the Whalebone Whales.
BALANIDÆ (Gr. balanos, an acorn). A family of sessile
Cirripedes, commonly called "Acorn-shells."
BATRACHIA (Gr. batrachos, a frog). Often loosely applied
to any of the Amphibia, but sometimes restricted to the
Amphibians as a class, or to the single order of the
BELEMNITIDÆ (Gr. belemnon, a dart). An extinct group
of Dibranchiate Cephalopods, comprising the Belemnites and their
BELEMNOTEUTHIS (Gr. belemnon, a dart; teuthis, a
cuttle-fish). A genus allied to the Belemnites proper.
BELINURUS (Gr. belos, a dart; oura, tail). A genus
of fossil King-crabs.
BELLEROPHON (Gr. proper name). A genus of oceanic Univalves
BELOTEUTHIS (Gr. belos, a dart; teuthis, a
cuttle-fish). An extinct genus of Dibranchiate Cephalopods.
BEYRICHIA (named after Prof. Beyrich). A genus of Ostracode
BILATERAL. Having two symmetrical sides.
BIMANA (Lat. Bis, twice; manus, a hand). The order
of Mammalia comprising man alone.
BIPEDAL (Lat. bis, twice; pes, foot). Walking upon
BIVALVE (Lat. bis, twice; valvœ, folding-doors).
Composed of two plates or valves; applied to the shell of the
Lamellibranchiata and Brachiopoda, and to the
carapace of certain Crustacea.
BLASTOIDEA (Gr. blastos, a bud; and eidos, form).
An extinct order of Echinodermata, often called
BRACHIOPODA (Gr. brachion, an arm; pous, the foot).
A class or the Molluscoida, often called "Lamp-shells,"
characterised by possessing two fleshy arms continued from the sides
of the mouth.
BRACHYURA (Gr. brachus, short; oura, tail). A tribe
of the Decapod Crustaceans with short tails (i.e.,
BRADYPODIDÆ. (Gr. bradus, slow; podes, feet). The
family of Edentata comprising the Sloths.
BRANCHIA (Gr. bragchia, the gill of a fish). A respiratory
organ adapted to breathe air dissolved in water.
BRANCHIATE. Possessing gills or branchiæ.
BRONTEUS (Gr. broné, thunder—an epithet of Jupiter
the Thunderer). A genus of Trilobites.
BRONTOTHERIUM (Gr. bronté, thunder; therion beast).
An extinct genus of Ungulate Quadrupeds.
BRONTOZOUM (Gr. bronté, thunder; zoön, animal).
A genus founded on the largest footprints of the Triassic Sandstones
BUCCINUM (Lat. buccinun, a trumpet). The genus of Univalves
comprising the Whelks.
CAINOZOIC (See Kainozoic.)
CALAMITES (Lat. calamus, a reed). Extinct plants with
reed-like stems, believed to be gigantic representatives of the
CALCAREOUS (Lat. calx, lime). Composed of carbonate of
CALICE. The little cup in which the polype of a coralligenous
Zoophyte (Actinozoön) is contained.
CALYMENE (Gr. kalumené, concealed). A genus of
CALYX (Lat. a cup). Applied to the cup-shaped body of a
CAMAROPHORIA (Gr. kamara, a chamber; phero, I
carry). A genus of Brachiopods.
CAMELOPARDALIDÆ. (Lat. camelus, a camel;
pardalis, a panther). The family of the Giraffes.
CANINE (Lat. canis, a dog). The eye-tooth of Mammals,
or the tooth which is placed at or close to the præmaxillary
suture in the upper jaw, and the corresponding tooth in the lower
CARAPACE. A protective shield. Applied to the upper shell of
Crabs, Lobsters, and many other Crustacea. Also the upper
half of the immovable case in which the body of a Chelonian is
CARCHARODON (Gr. karcharos. rough; odous, tooth).
A genus of Sharks.
CARDIOCARPON (Gr. kardia, the heart; karpos, fruit).
A genus of fossil fruit from the Coal-measures.
CARDIUM (Gr. kardia, the heart). The genus of Bivalve
Molluscs comprising the Cockles. Cardinia, Cardiola, and
Cardita have the same derivation.
CARNIVORA (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, I devour). An
order of the Mammalia. The "Beasts of Prey."
CARNIVOROUS (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, I devour).
Feeding upon flesh.
CARYOCARIS (Gr. karua, a nut; karis, a shrimp).
A genus of Phyllopod Crustaceans.
CARYOCRINUS (Gr. karua, a nut; krinon, a lily).
A genus of Cystideans.
CAUDAL (Lat. cauda, the tail). Belonging to the
CAVICORNIA (Lat. cavus, hollow; cornu, a horn).
The "hollow-horned" Ruminants, in which the horn consists of
a central bony "horn-core" surrounded by a horny sheath.
CENTRUM (Gr. kentron, the point round which a circle is
described by a pair of compasses). The central portion or "body"
of a vertebra.
CEPHALASPIDÆ. (Gr. kephale, head; aspis,
shield). A family of fossil fishes.
CEPHALIC (Gr. kephale, head). Belonging to the head.
CEPHALOPODA (Gr. kephale; and podes, feet). A class
of the Mollusca, comprising the Cuttle-fishes and their
allies, in which there is a series of arms ranged round the
CERATIOCARIS (Gr. keras, a horn; karis, a shrimp).
A genus of Phyllopod Crustaceans.
CERATITES (Gr. keras, a horn). A genus
CERATODUS (Gr. keras, a horn; odous, tooth). A
genus of Dipnoous fishes.
CERVICAL (Lat. cervix, the neck). Connected with or
belonging to the region of the neck.
CERVIDÆ (Lat. cervus, a stag). The family of the
CESTRAPHORI (Gr. kestra, a weapon; phero, I carry).
The group of the "Cestraciont Fishes," represented at the present
day by the Port-Jackson Shark; so called from their defensive
CETACEA (Gr. ketos, a whale). The order of Mammals
comprising the Whales and the Dolphins.
CETIOSAURUS (Gr. ketos, whale; saura, lizard). A
genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
CHEIROPTERA (Gr. cheir, hand; pteron, wing). The
Mammalian order of the Bats.
CHEIROTHERIUM (Gr. cheir, hand; therion, beast).
The generic name applied originally to the hand-shaped footprints
CHEIRURUS (Gr. cheir, hand; oura, tail). A genus
CHELONIA (Gr. cheloné, a tortoise). The Reptilian
order of the Tortoises and Turtles.
CHONETES (Gr. choné or choané, a
chamber or box). A genus of Brachiopods.
CIDARIS (Lat. a diadem). A genus of Sea-urchins.
CLADODUS (Gr. klados, branch; odous, tooth). A genus
CLATHROPORA (Lat. clathti, a trellis; porus, a pore).
A genus of Lace-corals (Polyzoa).
CLISIOPHYLLUM (Gr. klision, a hut; phullon, leaf).
A genus of Rugose Corals.
CLYMENIA (Clumene, a proper name). A genus of
COCCOSTEUS (Gr. kokkos, berry; osteon, bone). A
genus of Ganoid Fishes.
COCHLIODUS (Gr. kochlion, a snail-shell; odous,
tooth). A genus of Cestraciont Fishes.
CŒLENTERATA (Gr. koilos, hollow; enteron, the
bowel). The sub-kingdom which comprises the Hydrozoa and
Actinozoa. Proposed by Frey and Leuckhart in place of the
old term Radiata, which included other animals as
COLEOPTERA (Gr. koleos, a sheath; pteron, wing).
The order of Insects (Beetles) in which the anterior pair of wings
are hardened, and serve as protective cases for the posterior
pair of membranous wings.
COLOSSOCHELYS (Gr. kolossos, a gigantic statue; chelus,
a tortoise). A huge extinct Land-tortoise.
COMATULA (Gr. koma, the hair). The Feather-star, so called
in allusion to its tress-like arms.
CONDYLE (Gr. kondulos, a knuckle). The surface by which
one bone articulates with another. Applied especially to the
articular surface or surfaces by which the skull articulates with
the vertebral column.
CONIFERÆ (Lat. conus, a cone; fero, I carry).
The order of the Firs, Pines, and their allies, in which the
fruit is generally a "cone" or "fir-apple."
CONULARIA (Lat. conulus, a little-cone). An extinct genus
COPRALITES (Gr. kopros, dung; lithos, stone). Properly
applied to the fossilised excrements of animals; but often employed
to designate phosphatic concretions which are not of this
CORALLITE. The corallum secreted by an Actinozoön which
consists of a single polype; or the portion of a composite corallum
which belongs to, and is secreted by, an individual polype.
CORALLUM (from the Latin for Red Coral). The hard structures
deposited in, or by the tissues of an
Actinozoön,—commonly called a "coral."
CORIACEOUS (Lat. corium. hide). Leathery.
CORYPHODON (Gr. korus, helmet; odous, tooth). An
extinct genus of Mammals, allied to the Tapirs.
CRANIUM (Gr. kranion, the skull). The bony or cartilaginous
case in which the brain is contained.
CRETACEOUS (Lat. creta, chalk). The formation which in
Europe contains white chalk as one of its most conspicuous
CRINOIDEA (Gr. krinon, a lily; eidos, form). An order
of Echinodermata, comprising forms which are usually stalked,
and sometimes resemble lilies in shape.
CRIOCERAS (Gr. krios, a ram; keras, a horn). A genus
CROCODILIA (Gr. krokodeilos, a crocodile). An order of
CROSSOPTERYGIDÆ. (Gr. krossotos, a fringe;
pterux, a fin). A sub-order of Ganoids in which the paired
fins possess a central lobe.
CRUSTACEA (Lat. crusta, a crust). A class of Articulate
animals, comprising Crabs, Lobsters, &c., characterised by the
possession of a hard shell or crust, which they cast
CRYPTOGAMS (Gr. kruptos, concealed; gamos, marriage).
A division of plants in which the organs of reproduction are
obscure and there are no true flowers.
CTENACANTHUS (Gr. kteis, a comb; akantha, a thorn).
A genus of fossil fishes, named from its fin-spines.
CTENOID (Gr. kteis, a comb; eidos, form). Applied
to those scales of fishes the hinder margins of which are fringed
with spines or comb-like projections.
CURSORES (Lat. curro, I run). An order of Aves,
comprising birds destitute of the power of flight, but formed
for running vigorously (e.g., the Ostrich and Emeu).
CUSPIDATE. Furnished with small pointed eminences or "cusps."
CYATHOCRINUS (Gr. kuathos, a cup; krinon, a lily).
A genus of Crinoids.
CYATHOPHYLLUM (Gr. kuathos, a cup; phullon, a leaf).
A genus of Rugose Corals.
CYCLOID (Gr. kuklos, a circle; eidos, form). Applied
to those scales of fishes which have a regularly circular or
elliptical outline with an even margin.
CYCLOPHTHALMUS (Gr. kuklos, a circle; ophthalmos,
eye). A genus of fossil Scorpions.
CYCLOSTOMI (Gr. kuklos, and stoma, mouth). Sometimes
used to designate the Hag-fishes and Lampreys, forming the order
CYPRÆA (a name of Venus). The genus of Univalve Molluscs
comprising the Cowries.
CYRTOCERAS (Gr. kurtos. crooked; keras, horn). A
genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
CYSTIPHYLLUM (Gr. kustis, a bladder; phullon, a
leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
CYSTOIDEA (Gr. kustis, a bladder; eidos, form).
The "Globe-crinoids," an extinct order of
DADOXYLON (Gr. dadion, a torch; xulon, wood). An
extinct genus of Coniferous trees.
DECAPODA (Gr. deka, ten; podes, feet). The division
of Crustacea which have ten feet; also the family of
Cuttle-fishes, in which there are ten arms or cephalic
DECIDUOUS (Lat. decido, I fall off). Applied to parts which
fall off or are shed during the life of the animal.
DEINOSAURIA (Gr. deinos, terrible; saura, lizard).
An extinct order of Reptiles.
DEINOTHERIUM (Gr. deinos, terrible; therion, beast).
An extinct genus of Proboscidean Mammals.
DENDROGRAPTUS (Gr. dendron, tree; grapho, I write).
A genus of Graptolites.
DESMIDIÆ. Minute fresh-water plants, of a green colour, without
a siliceous epidermis.
DIATOMACEÆ (Gr. diatemno, I sever). An order of minute
plants which are provided with siliceous envelopes.
DIBRANCHIATA (Gr. dis; twice; bragchia, gill).
The order of Cephalopoda (comprising the Cuttle-fishes,
&c.) in which only two gills are present.
DICERAS (Gr. dis, twice; keras, horn). An extinct
genus of Bivalve Molluscs.
DICTYONEMA (Gr. diktuon, a net; nema, thread). An
extinct genus of Polyzoa.
DICYNODONTIA (Gr. dis, twice; kuon, dog; odous,
tooth). An extinct order of Reptiles.
DIDYMOGRAPTUS (Gr. didumos, twin; grapho, I write).
A genus of Graptolites.
DIMORPHODON (Gr. dis, twice; morphé, shape;
oduos, tooth). A genus of Pterosaurian reptiles.
DINICHTHYS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ichthus, fish).
An extinct genus of Fishes.
DINOCERAS (Gr. deinos, terrible; keras, horn). An
extinct genus of Mammals.
DINOPHIS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ophis, snake). An
extinct genus of Snakes.
DINORNIS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ornis, bird). An
extinct genus of Birds.
DIPLOGRAPTUS (Gr. diplos, double; grapho, I write).
A genus of Graptolites.
DIPNOI (Gr. dis, twice; pnoé, breath). An order
of Fishes, comprising the Mud-fishes, so called in allusion to
their double mode of respiration.
DIPROTODON (Gr. dis, twice; protos, first;
odous, tooth). A genus of extinct Marsupials.
DIPTERA (Gr. dis, twice; pteron, wing). An order
of Insects characterised by the possession of two wings.
DISCOID (Gr. diskos, a quoit; eidos, form). Shaped
like a round plate or quoit.
DOLOMITE (named after M. Dolomieu). Magnesian limestone.
DORSAL (Lat. dorsum, the back). Connected with or placed
upon the back.
DROMATHERIUM (Gr. dromaios, nimble; therion, beast).
A genus of Triassic Mammals.
DRYOPITHECUS (Gr. drus, an oak; pithekos, an ape).
An extinct genus of Monkeys.
ECHINODERMATA (Gr. echinos; and derma, skin). A
class of animals comprising the Sea-urchins, Star-fishes, and
others, most of which have spiny skins.
ECHINOIDEA (Gr. echinos; and eidos, form). An order
of Echinodermata, comprising the Sea-urchins.
EDENTATA (Lat. e, without; dens, tooth). An order
of Mammalia often called Bruta.
EDENTULOUS. Toothless, without any dental apparatus. Applied to
the mouth of any animal, or to the hinge of the Bivalve
ELASMOBRANCHII (Gr. elasma, a plate; bragchia, gill).
An order of Fishes, including the Sharks and Rays.
ENALIOSAURIA (Gr. enalios, marine; saura, lizard),
Sometimes employed as a common term to designate the extinct
Reptilian orders of the Ichthyosauria and
EOCENE (Gr. eos, dawn; kainos, new or recent).
The lowest division of the Tertiary rocks, in which species of
existing shells are to a small extent represented.
EOPHYTON (Gr. eos, dawn; phuton, a plant). A genus
of Cambrian fossils, supposed to be of a vegetable nature.
EOZOÖN (Gr. eos, dawn; zoön, animal). A
genus of chambered calcareous organisms found in the Laurentian and
EQUILATERAL (Lat. œquus, equal; latus, side).
Having its sides equal. Usually applied to the shells of the
Brachiopoda. When applied to the spiral shells of the
Foraminifera, it means that all the convolutions of the
shell lie in the same plane.
EQUISETACEÆ (Lat. equus, horse; seta, bristle). A
group of Cryptogamous plants, commonly known as "Horse-tails."
EQUIVALVE (Lat. œquus, equal; valvœ,
folding-doors). Applied to shells which are composed of two equal
pieces or valves.
ERRANTIA (Lat. erro, I wander). An order of Annelida,
often called Nereidea, distinguished by their great locomotive
EUOMPHALUS (Gr. eu, well; omphalos, navel). An extinct
genus of Univalve Molluscs.
EURYPTERIDA (Gr. eurus, broad; pteron, wing). An
extinct sub-order of Crustacea.
EXOGYRA (Gr. exo, outside; guros, circle). An extinct
genus of Oysters.
FAUNA (Lat. Fauni, the rural deities of the Romans). The
general assemblage of the animals of any region or district.
FAVOSITES (Lat. favus, a honeycomb). A genus of Tabulate
FENESTELLIDÆ. (Lat. fenestella, a little window). The
"Lace-corals," a group of Palæozoic Polyzoans.
FILICES (Lat. filix, a fern). The order of Cryptogamic
plants comprising the Ferns.
FILIFORM (Lat. filum, a thread; forma, shape).
FLORA (Lat. Flora, the goddess of flowers). The general
assemblage of the plants of any region or district.
FORAMINIFERA (Lat. foramen, an aperture; fero,
I carry). An order of Protozoa, usually characterised by the
possession of a shell perforated by numerous pseudopodial
FRUGIVOROUS (Lat. frux, fruit; voro, I devour).
Living upon fruits.
FUCOIDS (Lat. fucus, sea-weed; Gr. eidos, likeness).
Fossils, often of an obscure nature, believed to be the remains
FUSULINA (Lat. fusus, a spindle). An extinct genus of
GANOID (Gr, ganos, splendour, brightness). Applied to
those scales or plates which are composed of an inferior layer
of true bone covered by a superior layer of polished enamel.
GANOIDEI. An order of Fishes.
GASTEROPODA (Gr. gaster, stomach; pous, foot).
The class of the Mollusca comprising the ordinary Univalves,
in which locomotion is usually effected by a muscular expansion
of the under surface of the body (the "foot").
GLOBIGERINA (Lat. globus, a globe; gero, I carry).
A genus of Foraminifera.
GLYPTODON (Gr. glupho, I engrave; odous, tooth). An
extinct genus of Armadillos, so named in allusion to the fluted
GONIATITES (Gr. gonia, angle). A genus of Tetrabranchiate
GRALLATORES (Lat. grallœ, stilts). The order of the
long-legged Wading Birds.
GRAPTOLITIDÆ. (Gr. grapho, I write; lithos,
stone). An extinct sub-class of the Hydrozoa.
GYMNOSPERMS (Gr. gumnos, naked; sperma, seed). The
Conifers and Cycads, in which the seed is not protected within
HALITHERIUM (Gr. hals, sea; therion, beast). An
extinct genus of Sea-cows (Sirenia).
HAMITES (Lat. hamus, a hook). A genus of the
HELIOPHYLLUM (Gr. helios, the sun; phullon, leaf).
A genus of Rugose Corals.
HELLADOTHERIUM (Gr. Hellas, Greece; therion, beast).
An extinct genus of Ungulate Mammals.
HEMIPTERA (Gr. hemi, and pteron, wing). An order
of Insects in which the anterior wings are sometimes
HESPERORNIS (Gr. Hesperos, the evening star; ornis,
bird). An extinct genus of Birds.
HETEROCERCAL (Gr. heteros, diverse; kerkos, tail).
Applied to the tail of Fishes when it is unsymmetrical, or composed
of two unequal lobes.
HETEROPODA (Gr. heteros, diverse; podes, feet). An
aberrant group of the Gasteropods, in which the foot is modified
so as to form a swimming organ.
HIPPARION (Gr. hipparion, a little horse). An extinct genus
HIPPOPOTAMUS (Gr. hippos, horse; potamos, river).
A genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds—the "River-horses."
HIPPURITIDÆ. (Gr. hippos, horse; oura, tail). An
extinct family of Bivalve Molluscs.
HOLOPTYCHIUS (Gr. holos, whole; ptucé, wrinkle).
An extinct genus of Ganoid Fishes.
HOLOSTOMATA (Gr. holos, whole; stoma, mouth). A
division of Gasteropodous Molluscs, in which the aperture
of the shell is rounded, or "entire."
HOLOTHUROIDEA (Gr. holothourion, and eidos, form).
An order of Echinodermata comprising the Trepangs.
HOMOCERCAL (Gr. homos, same; kerkol, tail). Applied
to the tail of Fishes when it is symmetrical, or composed of two
HYBODUNTS (Gr. hubos, curved; odous, tooth). A group
of Fishes of which Hybodus is the type-genus.
HYDROIDA (Gr. hudra; and eidos, form). The sub-class
of the Hydrozoa, which comprises the animals most nearly
allied to the Hydra.
HYDROZOA (Gr. hudra; and zoön, animal). The class
of the Cœlenterata which comprises animals constructed
after the type of the Hydra.
HYMENOPTERA (Gr. humen, a membrane; pteron, a wing).
An order of Insects (comprising Bees, Ants, &c.) characterised
by the possession of four membranous wings.
ICHTHYODORULITE (Gr. ichthus, fish; dorus, spear;
lithos, stone). The fossil fin-spine of Fishes.
ICHTHYOPTERYGIA (Gr. ichthus; pterux, wing). An
extinct order of Reptiles.
ICHTHYORNIS (Gr. ichthus, fish; ornis, bird). An
extinct genus of Birds.
ICHTHYOSAURIA (Gr. ichthus; saura, lizard). Synonymous
IGUANODON (Iguana, a living lizard; Gr. odous, tooth).
A genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
INCISOR (Lat. incido, I cut). The cutting teeth fixed
in the intermaxillary bones of the Mammalia, and the
corresponding teeth in the lower jaw.
INEQUILATERAL. Having the two sides unequal, as in the case of
the shells of the ordinary bivalves (Lamellibranchiata).
When applied to the shells of the Foraminifera, it implies
that the convolutions of the shell do not lie in the same plane,
but are obliquely wound round an axis.
INEQUIVALVE. Composed of two unequal pieces or valves.
INOCERAMUS (Gr. is, a fibre; keramos, an earthen
vessel). An extinct genus of Bivalve Molluscs.
INSECTA (Lat. inseco, I cut into). The class of articulate
animals commonly known as Insects.
INSECTIVORA (Lat. insectum, an insect; voro, I
devour). An order of Mammals.
INSECTIVOROUS. Living upon Insects.
INSESSORES (Lat. insedeo, I sit upon). The order of the
Perching Birds, often called Passeres.
INTERAMBULACRA. The rows of plates in an Echinoid which
are not perforated for the emission of the "tube-feet."
INTERMMAXILLÆ or PRÆMAXILLÆ. The two bones
which are situated between the two superior maxillæ in
Vertebrata. In man, and some monkeys, the
præmaxillæ anchylose with the maxillæ, so
as to be irrecognisable in the adult.
INVERTEBRATA (Lat. in, without; vertebra, a bone
of the back). Animals without a spinal column or backbone.
ISOPODA. (Gr. isos, equal; podes, feet). An order
of Crustacea in which the feet are like one another and
KAINOZOIC (Gr. kainos, recent; zoe, life). The
Tertiary period in Geology comprising those formations in which
the organic remains approximate more or less closely to the existing
fauna and flora.
LABYRINTHODONTIA (Gr. laburinthos, a labyrinth; odous,
tooth). An extinct order of Amphibia, so called from the
complex microscopic structure of the teeth.
LACERTILIA (Lat. lacerta, a lizard). An order of
Reptilia comprising the Lizards and Slow-worms.
LAMELLIBRANCHIATA (Lat. lamella, a plate; Gr. bragchia,
gill). The class of Mollusca comprising the ordinary bivalves,
characterised by the possession of lamellar gills.
LEPIDODENDRON (Gr. lepis, a scale; dendron, a tree).
A genus of extinct plants, so named from the scale-like scars
upon the stem left by the falling off of the leaves.
LEPIDOPTERA (Gr. lepis, a scale; pteron, a wing). An
order of Insects, comprising Butterflies and Moths, characterised by
possessing four wings which are usually covered with minute scales.
LEPIDOSIREN (Gr. lepis, a scale; seiren, a
siren—the generic name of the Mud-eel or Siren
lacertina). A genus of Dipnoous fishes, comprising the
LEPIDOSTROBUS (Gr. lepis, a scale; strobilos, a
fir-cone). A genus founded on the cones of Lepidodendron.
LEPTÆNA (Gr. leptos. slender). A genus of
LINGULA (Lat. lingula, a little tongue). A genus of
LYCOPODIACEÆ (Gr. lupos, a wolf; pous, foot). The
group of Cryptogamic plants generally known as "Club-mosses."
MACHÆRACANTHUS (Gr. machaira, a sabre; acantha,
thorn or spine). An extinct genus of Fishes.
MACHAIRODUS (Gr. machaira, a sabre; odous, tooth).
An extinct genus of Carnivora.
MACROTHERIUM (Gr. makros, long; therion. beast).
An extinct genus of Edentata.
MACRURA (Gr. makros, long; oura, tail). A tribe of
Decapod Crustaceans with long tails (e.g., the Lobster,
MAMMALIA (Lat. mamma, the breast). The class of Vertebrate
animals which suckle their young.
MANDIBLE (Lat. mandibulum, a jaw). The upper pair of jaws
in Insects; also applied to one of the pairs of jaws in
Crustacea and Spiders, to the beak of Cephalopods, the
lower jaw of Vertebrates, &c.
MANTLE. The external integument of most of the Mollusca, which
is largely developed, and forms a cloak in which the viscera
are protected. Technically called the "pallium."
MANUS (Lat. the hand). The hand of the higher Vertebrates.
MARSIPOBRANCHII (Gr. marsipos, a pouch; bragchia,
gill). The order of Fishes comprising the Hag-fishes and Lampreys,
with pouch-like gills.
MARSUPIALIA (Lat. marsupium, a pouch). An order of Mammals
in which the females mostly have an abdominal pouch in which
the young are carried.
MASTODON (Gr. mastos, nipple; odous, tooth). An
extinct genus of Elephantine Mammals.
MEGALONYX (Gr. megas, great; onux, nail). An extinct
genus of Edentate Mammals.
MEGALOSAURUS (Gr. megas, great; saura, lizard).
A genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
MEGATHERIUM (Gr. megas, great; therion, beast).
An extinct genus of Edentata.
MESOZOIC (Gr. mesos, middle; and zoe, life). The
Secondary period in Geology.
MICROLESTES (Gr. mikros, little; lestes, thief).
An extinct genus of Triassic Mammals.
MILLEPORA (Lat. mille, one thousand; porus, a pore).
A genus of "Tabulate Corals."
MIOCENE (Gr. meion, less; kainol, new). The Middle
MOLARS (Lat. mola, a mill). The "grinders" in man, or the
teeth in diphyodont Mammals which are not preceded by
MOLLUSCA (Lat. mollis, soft). The sub-kingdom which includes
the Shell-fish proper, the Polyzoa, the Tunicata,
and the Lamp-shells; so called from the generally soft nature
of their bodies.
MOLLUSCOIDA (Mollusca; Gr. eidos, form). The lower
division of the Mollusca, comprising the Polyzoa,
Tunicata, and Brachiopoda.
MONOGRAPTUS (Gr. monos, single; grapho, I write).
A genus of Graptolites.
MYLODON (Gr. mulos, a mill; odous, tooth). An extinct
genus of Edentate Mammals.
MYRIAPODA or MYRIOPODA (Gr. murios, ten thousand;
podes, feet). A class of Arthropoda comprising
the Centipedes and their allies, characterised by their numerous
NATATORES (Lat. nare, to swim). The order of the Swimming
NATATORY (Lat. nare, to swim). Formed for swimming.
NAUTILOID. Resembling the shell of the Nautilus in
NERVURES (Lat. nervus, a sinew). The ribs which support
the membranous wings of insects.
NEUROPTERA (Gr. neuron, a nerve; pteron, a wing).
An order of Insects characterised by four membranous wings with
numerous reticulated nervures (e.g., Dragon-flies).
NEUROPTERIS (Gr. neuron, a nerve; pteris, a fern).
An extinct genus of Ferns.
NOTHOSAURUS (Gr. nothos, spurious; saura, lizard).
A genus of Plesiosaurian Reptiles.
NOTOCHORD (Gr. notos, back; chorde, string). A
cellular rod which is developed in the embryo of Vertebrates
immediately beneath the spinal cord, and which is usually replaced
in the adult by the vertebral column. Often it is spoken of as
the "chorda dorsalis."
NUDIBRANCHIATA (Lat. nudus, naked; and Gr. bragchia,
gill). An order of the Gasteropoda in which the gills
NUMMULINA (Lat. nummus, a coin). A genus of
Foraminifera, comprising the coin-shaped "Nummulites."
OBOLELLA (Lat. dim. of obolus, a small coin). An extinct
genus of Brachiopods.
OCCIPITAL. Connected with the occiput, or the back part
of the head.
OCEANIC. Applied to animals which inhabit the open ocean (=
ODONTOPTERYX (Gr. oduos, tooth; pterux, wing). An
extinct genus of Birds.
ODONTORNITHES (Gr. oduos, tooth; ornis, bird).
The extinct order of Birds, comprising forms with distinct teeth
OLIGOCENE (Gr. oligos, few; kainos, new). A name
used by many Continental geologists as synonymous with the Lower
OPHIDIA (Gr. ophis, a serpent). The order of Reptiles
comprising the Snakes.
OPHIUROIDEA (Gr. ophis, snake; oura, tail;
eidos, form). An order of Echinodermata, comprising
the Brittle-stars and Sand-stars.
ORNITHOSCELIDA (Gr. ornis, bird; skelos, leg).
Applied by Huxley to the Deinosaurian Reptiles, together with the
genus Compsognathus, on account of the bird-like character
of their hind-limbs.
ORTHIS (Gr. orthos, straight). A genus of Brachiopods,
named in allusion to the straight hinge-line.
ORTHOCERATIDÆ (Gr. orthos, straight; keras,
horn). A family of the Nautilidœ, in which the shell
is straight, or nearly so.
ORTHOPTERA (Gr. orthos, straight; pteron, wing).
An order of Insects.
OSTEOLEPIS (Gr. osteon, bone; lepis, scale). An
extinct genus of Ganoid Fishes.
OSTRACODA (Gr. ostrakon, a shell). An order of small
Crustaceans which are enclosed in bivalve shells.
OTODUS (Gr. ota, ears; odous, tooth). An extinct
genus of Sharks.
OUDENODON (Gr. ouden, none; odous, tooth). A genus
of Dicynodont Reptiles.
OVIBUS (Lat. ovis, sheep; bos, ox). The genus
comprising the Musk-ox.
PACHYDERMATA (Gr. pachus, thick; derma, skin).
An old Mammalian order constituted by Cuvier for the reception
of the Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Elephant, &c.
PALÆASTER (Gr. palaios, ancient; aster, star).
An extinct genus of Star-fishes.
PALÆOCARIS (Gr. palaios, ancient; karis, shrimp).
An extinct genus of Decapod Crustaceans.
PALÆOLITHIC (Gr. palaios, ancient; lithos,
stone). Applied to the rude stone implements of the earliest known
races of men, to the men who made these implements, or to the
period at which they were made.
PALÆONTOLOGY (Gr. palaios, ancient; and logos,
discourse). The science of fossil remains or of extinct organised
PALÆOPHIS (Gr. palaios, ancient; ophis, serpent).
An extinct genus of Snakes.
PALÆOSAURUS (Gr. palaios, ancient; saura, lizard).
A genus of Thecodont Reptiles.
PALÆOTHERIDÆ. (Gr. palaios, ancient; ther,
beast). A group of Tertiary Ungulates.
PALÆOZOIC (Gr. palaios, ancient; and zoe, life).
Applied to the oldest of the great geological epochs.
PARADOXIDES (Lat. paradoxus, marvellous). A genus of
PATAGIUM (Lat. the border of a dress). Applied to the expansion
of the integument by which Bats, Flying Squirrels, and other
animals support themselves in the air.
PECOPTERIS (Gr. peko, I comb; pteris, a fern). An
extinct genus of Ferns.
PECTEN (Lat. a comb). The genus of Bivalve Molluscs comprising
PECTORAL (Lat. pectus, chest). Connected with, or placed
upon, the chest.
PENTACRINUS (Gr. penta, five; krinon, lily). A genus
of Crinoids in which the column is five-sided.
PENTAMERUS (Gr. penta, five; meros, part). An extinct
genus of Brachiopods.
PENTREMITES (Gr. penta, five; trema, aperture). A
genus of Blastoidea, so named in allusion to the apertures
at the summit of the calyx.
PERENNIBRANCHIATA (Lat. perennis, perpetual; Gr.
bragchia, gill). Applied to those Amphibia in which the
gills are permanently retained throughout life.
PERISSODACTYLA (Gr. perissos, uneven; daktulos,
finger). Applied to those Hoofed Quadrupeds (Ungulata)
in which the feet have an uneven number of toes.
PETALOID. Shaped like the petal of a flower.
PHACOPS (Gr. phaké, a lentil; ops, the eye).
A genus of Trilobites.
PHALANGES (Gr. phalanx, a row). The small bones composing
the digits of the higher Vertebrata. Normally each digit
has three phalanges.
PHANEROGAMS (Gr. phaneros, visible; gamos, marriage).
Plants which have the organs of reproduction conspicuous, and
which bear true flowers.
PHARYNGOBRANCHII (Gr. pharugx, pharynx; bragchia,
gill). The order of Fishes comprising only the Lancelet.
PHASCOLOTHERIUM (Gr. phaskolos, a pouch; therion,
a beast). A genus of Oolitic Mammals.
PHRAGMACONE (Gr. phragma, a partition; and konos,
a cone). The chambered portion of the internal shell of a
PHYLLOPODA (Gr. phullon, leaf; and pous, foot).
An order of Crustacea.
PINNATE (Lat. pinna, a feather). Feather-shaped; or possessing
PINNIGRADA (Lat. pinna, a feather; gradior, I walk).
The group of Carnivora, comprising the Seals and Walruses,
adapted for an aquatic life. Often called Pinnipedia.
PINNULÆ. (Lat. dim. of pinna). The lateral processes of
the arms of Crinoids.
PISCES (Lat. piscis, a fish). The class of Vertebrates
comprising the Fishes.
PLACOID (Gr. plax, a plate; eidos, form). Applied
to the irregular bony plates, grains, or spines which are found
in the skin of various fishes (Elasmobranchii).
PLAGIOSTOMI (Gr. plagios, transverse; stoma, mouth).
The Sharks and Rays, in which the mouth is transverse, and is
placed on the under surface of the head.
PLATYCERAS (Gr. platus, broad; keras, horn). A genus
of Univalve Molluscs.
PLATYCRINUS (Gr. platus, broad; krinom, lily). A
genus of Crinoidea.
PLATYRHINA (Gr. platus, broad; rhines, nostrils).
A group of the Quadrumana.
PLATYSOMUS (Gr. platus, wide; soma, body). A genus
of Ganoid Fishes.
PLEISTOCENE (Gr. pleistos, most; kainos, new). Often
used as synonymous with "Post-Pliocene."
PLEUROTOMARIA (Gr. pleura, the side; tomé,
notch). A genus of Univalve shells.
PLIOCENE (Gr. pleion, more; kainos, new). The later
PLIOPITHECUS (Gr. pleion, more; pithekos, ape).
An extinct genus of monkeys.
PLIOSAURUS (Gr. pleion, more; saura, lizard). A
genus of Plesiosaurian Reptiles.
POLYCYSTINA (Gr. polus, many; and kustis, a cyst).
An order of Protozoa with foraminated siliceous shells.
POLYPARY. The hard chitinous covering secreted by many of the
POLYPE (Gr. polus, many; pous, foot). Restricted
to the single individual of a simple Actinozoön, such
as a Sea-anemone, or to the separate zooids of a compound
Actinozoön. Often applied indiscriminately to any of
the Cœlenterata, or even to the Polyzoa.
POLYPORA (Gr. polus, many; poros, a passage). A
genus of Lace-corals (Fenestellidœ).
POLYTHALAMOUS (Gr. polus; and thalamos, chamber).
Having many chambers; applied to the shells of Foraminifera
POLYZOA (Gr. polus; and zoön, animal). A division
of the Molluscoida comprising compound animals, such as
the Sea-mat—sometimes called Bryozoa.
PORIFERA (Lat. porus, pore; and fero, I carry).
Sometimes used to designate the Foraminifera, or the
PRÆMOLARS (Lat. prœ, before; molares, the
grinders). The molar teeth of Mammals which succeed the molars of the
milk-set of teeth. In man, the bicuspid teeth.
PROBOSCIDEA (Lat. proboscis, the snout). The order of Mammals
comprising the Elephants.
PROCŒLOUS (Gr. pro, before; koilos, hollow).
Applied to vertebræ the bodies of which are hollow or concave
PRODUCTA (Lat. productus, drawn out or extended). An extinct
genus of Brachiopods, in which the shell is "eared," or has its
lateral angles drawn out.
PROTICHNITES (Gr. protos, first; ichnos, footprint).
Applied to certain impressions in the Potsdam sandstone of North
America, believed to have been produced by large Crustaceans.
PROTOPHYTA (Gr. protos; and phuton, plant). The
lowest division of plants.
PROTOPLASM (Gr. protos; and plasso I mould). The
elementary basis of organised tissues. Sometimes used synonymously
for the "sarcode" of the Protozoa.
PROTOROSAURUS or PROTEROSAURUS (Gr. protos, first;
orao, I see or discover; saura, lizard: or
proteros, earlier; saura, lizard). A genus of Permian
PROTOZOA (Gr. protos; and zoön, animal). The
lowest division of the animal kingdom.
PSAMMODUS (Gr. psammos, sand; odous, tooth). An
extinct genus of Cestraciont Sharks.
PSEUDOPODIA (Gr. pseudos, falsity; and pous, foot).
The extensions of the body-substance which are put forth by the
Rhizopoda at will, and which serve for locomotion and
PSILOPHYTON (Gr. psilos, bare; phuton, plant). An
extinct genus of Lycopodiaceous plants.
PTERANODON (Gr. pteron, wing; a, without; odous,
tooth). A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
PTERASPIS (Gr. pteron, wing; aspis, shield). A genus
of Ganoid Fishes.
PTERICHTHYS (Gr. pteron, wing; ichthus, fish). A
genus of Ganoid Fishes.
PTERODACTYLUS (Gr. pteron, wing; daktulos, finger).
A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
PTEROPODA (Gr. pteron, wing; and pous, foot). A
class of the Mollusca which swim by means of fins attached
near the head.
PTEROSAURIA (Gr. pteron, wing; saura, lizard). An
extinct order of Reptiles.
PTILODICTYA (Gr. ptilon, a feather; diktuon, a net).
An extinct genus of Polyzoa.
PTYCHOCERAS (Gr. ptucé, a fold; keras, a
horn). A genus of Ammonitidœ.
PULMONATE. Possessing lungs.
PYRIFORM (Lat. pyrus, a pear; and forma, form).
QUADRUMANA (Lat. quatuor, four; manus, hand). The
order of Mammals comprising the Apes, Monkeys, Baboons, Lemurs,
RADIATA (Lat. radius, a ray). Formerly applied to a large
number of animals which are now placed in separate sub-kingdoms
(e.g., the Cœlenterata, the Echinodermata, the
RADIOLARIA (Lat. radius, a ray). A division of
RAMUS (Lat. a branch). Applied to each half or branch of the lower
jaw, or mandible, of Vertebrates.
RAPTORES (Lat. rapto, I plunder). The order of the Birds
RASORES (Lat. rado, I scratch). The order of the Scratching
Birds (Fowls. Pigeons, &c.)
RECEPTACULITES (Lat. receptaculum, a storehouse). An extinct
genus of Protozoa.
REPTILIA (Lat. repto, I crawl). The class of the
Vertebrata comprising the Tortoises, Snakes, Lizards,
RETEPORA (Lat. reté, a net; porus, a pore). A
genus of Lace-corals (Polyzoa).
RHAMPHORHYNCHUS (Gr. rhamphos, beak; rhugchos, nose).
A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
RHINOCEROS (Gr. rhis, the nose; keras, horn). A
genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds.
RHIZOPODA (Gr. rhiza, a root; and pous, foot).
The division of Protozoa comprising all those which are
capable of emitting pseudopodia.
RHYNCHOLITES (Gr. rhugchos, beak; and lithos, stone).
Beak-shaped fossils consisting of the mandibles of
RHYNCHONELLA (Gr. rhugchos, nose or beak). A genus of
RODENTIA (Lat. rodo, I gnaw). An order of the Mammals;
often called Glires (Lat. glis, a dormouse).
ROTALIA (Lat. rota, a wheel). A genus of
RUGOSA (Lat. rugosus, wrinkled). An order of Corals.
RUMINANTIA (Lat. ruminor, I chew the cud). The group of
Hoofed Quadrupeds (Ungulata) which "ruminate" or chew
SARCODE (Gr. sarx, flesh; eidos, form). The jelly-like
substance of which the bodies of the Protozoa are composed.
It is an albuminous body containing oil-granules, and is sometimes
called "animal protoplasm."
SAURIA (Gr. saura, a lizard). Any lizard-like Reptile is
often spoken of as a "Saurian;" but the term is sometimes restricted
to the Crocodiles alone, or to the Crocodiles and Lacertilians.
SAUROPTERYGIA (Gr. sauro; pterux, wing). An extinct
order of Reptiles, called by Huxley Plesiosauria, from
the typical genus Plesiosaurus.
SAURURÆ (Gr. saura; oura, tail). The extinct order
of Birds comprising only the Archœopteryx.
SCANSORES (Lat. scando, I climb). The order of the Climbing
Birds (Parrots, Woodpeckers, &c.)
SCAPHITES (Lat. scapha, a boat). A genus of the
SCOLITHUS (Gr. skolex, a worm; lithos, a stone).
The vertical burrows of sea-worms in rocks.
SCUTA (Lat. scutum, a shield). Applied to any shield-like
plates; especially to those which are developed in the integument
of many Reptiles.
SELACHIA or SELACHII (Gr. selachos, a cartilaginous fish,
probably a shark). The sub-order of Elasmobranchii comprising
the Sharks and Dog-fishes.
SEPIOSTAIRE. The internal shell of the Sepia, commonly known as
SERPENTIFORM. Resembling a serpent in shape.
SERTULARIDA (Lat. sertum, a wreath). An order of
SESSILE (Lat. sedo, I sit). Not supported upon a stalk or
peduncle; attached by a base.
SETHÆ (Lat. bristles). Bristles or long stiff hairs.
SIGILLARIOIDS (Lat. sigilla, little images). A group of
extinct plants of which Sigillaria is the type, so called
from the seal-like markings on the bark.
SILICEOUS (Lat. silex, flint). Composed of flint.
SINISTRAL (Lat. sinistra, the left hand). Left-handed;
applied to the direction of the spiral in certain shells, which
are said to be "reversed."
SIPHON (Gr. a tube). Applied to the respiratory tubes in the
Mollusca; also to other tubes of different functions.
SIPHONIA (Gr. siphon, a tube). A genus of fossil Sponges.
SIPHONOSTOMATA (Gr. siphon; and stoma, mouth). The
division of Gasteropodous Molluscs in which the aperture
of the shell is not "entire," but possesses a notch or tube for
the emission of the respiratory siphon.
SIPHUNCLE (Lat. siphunculus, a little tube). The tube
which connects together the various chambers of the shell of
certain Cephalopoda (e.g., the Pearly Nautilus).
SIRENIA (Gr. seiren. a mermaid). The order of Mammalia
comprising the Dugongs and Manatees.
SIVATHERIUM (Siva, a Hindoo deity; Gr. therion,
beast). An extinct genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds.
SOLIDUNGULA (Lat. solidus, solid; ungula, a hoof).
The group of Hoofed Quadrupeds comprising the Horse, Ass, and
Zebra, in which each foot has only a single solid hoof. Often
SPHENOPTERIS (Gr. sphen, a wedge; pteris, a fern).
An extinct genus of ferns.
SPICULA (Lat. spicidum, a point). Pointed needle-shaped
SPIRIFERA (Lat. spira, a spire or coil; fero, I
carry). An extinct genus of Brachiopods, with large spiral supports
for the "arms."
SPIRORBIS (Lat. spira, a spire; orbis, a circle).
A genus of tube-inhabiting Annelides, in which the shelly tube
is coiled into a spiral disc.
SPONGIDA (Gr. spoggos, a sponge). The division of
Protozoa commonly known as sponges.
STALACTITES (Gr. stalasso, I drop). Icicle-like encrustations
and deposits of lime, which hang from the roof of caverns in
STALAGMITE (Gr. stalagma, a drop). Encrustations of lime
formed on the floor of caverns which are hollowed out of
STIGMARIA (Gr. stigma, a mark made with a pointed instrument).
A genus founded on the roots of various species of
STRATUM (Lat. stratus, spread out; or stratum, a
thing spread out). A layer of rock.
STROMATOPORA (Gr. stroma, a thing spread out; paras,
a passage or pore). A Palæozoic genus of Protozoa.
STROPHOHENA (Gr. strophao, I twist; mené, moon).
An extinct genus of Brachiopods.
SUB-CALCAREOUS. Somewhat calcareous.
SUB-CENTRAL. Nearly central, but not quite.
SUTURE (Lat. suo, I sew). The line of junction of two
parts which are immovably connected together. Applied to the
line where the whorls of a univalve shell join one another; also
to the lines made upon the exterior of the shell of a chambered
Cephalopod by the margins of the septa.
SYRINGOPORA (Gr. surigx, a pipe; poros, a pore).
A genus of Tabulate Corals.
TABULÆ. (Lat. tabula, a tablet). Horizontal plates or
floors found in some Corals, extending across the cavity of the
"theca" from side to side.
TEGUMENTARY (Lat. tegumentum, a covering). Connected with
the integument or skin.
TELEOSAURUS (Gr. teleios, perfect; saura, lizard).
An extinct genus of Crocodilian Reptiles.
TELEOSTEI (Gr. teleios, perfect; osteon, bone).
The order of the "Bony Fishes."
TELSON (Gr. a limit). The last joint in the abdomen of
Crustacea; variously regarded as a segment without
appendages, or as an azygous appendage.
TENTACULITES (Lat. tentaculum, a feeler). A genus of
TEREBRATULA (Lat. terebratus, bored or pierced). A genus
of Brachiopoda, so called in allusion to the perforated
beak of the ventral valve.
TEST (Lat. testa, shell). The shell of Mollusca,
which are for this reason sometimes called "Testacea;"
also, the calcareous case of Echinoderms; also, the thick
leathery outer tunic in the Tunicata.
TESTACEOUS. Provided with a shell or hard covering.
TESTUDINIDÆ (Lat. testudo, a tortoise). The family of
TETRABRANCHIATA (Gr. tetra, four; bragchia, gill).
The order of Cephalopoda characterised by the possession
of four gills.
TEXTULARIA. (Lat. textilis, woven). A genus of
THECA (Gr. theké, a sheath). A genus of Pteropods.
THECODONTOSAURUS (Gr. theké, a sheath; odous,
tooth; saura, lizard). A genus of "Thecodont" Reptiles, so
named in allusion to the fact that the teeth are sunk in distinct
THERIODONT (Gr. therion, a beast; odous, tooth). A
group of Reptiles so named by Owen in allusion to the Mammalian
character of their teeth.
THORAX (Gr. a breastplate). The region of the chest.
THYLACOLEO (Gr. thulakos, a pouch; leo, a lion).
An extinct genus of Marsupials.
TRIGONIA (Gr. treis, three; gonia, angle). A genus
of Bivalve Molluscs.
TRIGONOCARPON (Gr. treis, three; gonia. angle;
karpos, fruit). A genus founded on fossil fruits of a
TRILOBITA (Gr. treis, three; lobos, a lobe). An
extinct order of Crustaceans.
TRINUCLEUS (Lat. tris, three; nucleus, a kernel).
A genus of Trilobites.
TROGONTHERIUM (Gr. trogo, I gnaw; therion, beast).
An extinct genus of Beavers.
TUBICOLA (Lat. tuba, a tube; and colo, I inhabit).
The order of Annelida which construct a tubular case in
which they protect themselves.
TUBICOLOUS. Inhabiting a tube.
TUNICATA (Lat. tunica, a cloak). A class of Molluscoida
which are enveloped in a tough leathery case or "test."
TURBINATED (Lat. turbo, a top). Top-shaped; conical with
a round base.
TURRILITES (Lat, turris, a tower). A genus of the
UMBO (Lat. the boss of a shield). The beak of a bivalve shell.
UNGUICULATE (Lat. unguis, nail). Furnished with claws.
UNGULATA (Lat. ungula, hoof). The order of Mammals comprising
the Hoofed Quadrupeds.
UNGULATE. Furnished with expanded nails constituting hoofs.
UNILOCULAR (Lat. unus, one; and loculus. a little
purse). Possessing a single cavity or chamber. Applied to the
shells of Foraminifera and Mollusca.
UNIVALVE (Lat. unus, one; valvœ, folding-doors).
A shell composed of a single piece or valve.
URODELA (Gr. oura, tail; delos, visible). The order
of the Tailed Amphibians (Newts, &c.)
VENTRAL (Lat. venter, the stomach). Relating to the inferior
surface of the body.
VENTRICULITES (Lat. ventriculum, a little stomach). A genus
of siliceous Sponges.
VERMIFORM (Lat. vermis, worm; and forma, form).
VERTEBRA (Lat. verto, I turn). One of the bony segments
of the vertebral column or backbone.
VERTEBRATA (Lat. vertebra, a bone of the back, from
vertere, to turn). The division of the Animal Kingdom
roughly characterised by the possession of a backbone.
VESICLE (Lat. vesica, a bladder). A little sac or cyst.
WHORL. The spiral turn of a univalve shell.
XIPHOSURA (Gr. xiphos, a sworn; and oura, tail).
An order of Crustacea, comprising the Limuli or
King-Crabs, characterised by their long sword-like tails.
XYLOBIUS (Gr. xulon, wood; bios, life). An extinct
genus of Myriapods, named in allusion to the fact that the animal
lived on decaying wood.
ZAPHRENTIS (proper name). A genus of Rugose Corals.
ZEUGLODONTIDÆ. (Gr. zeuglé, a yoke;
odous, a tooth). An extinct family of Cetaceans, in which
the molar teeth are two-fanged, and look as if composed of two
parts united by a neck.
ZOOPHYTE (Gr. zoön, animal; phuton, plant).
Loosely applied to many plant-like animals, such as Sponges,
Corals, Sea-anemones, Sea-mats, &c.