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THE ANCIENT
LIFE-HISTORY
OF THEĀ EARTH

Glossary


ABDOMEN (Lat. abdo, I conceal). The posterior cavity of the body, containing the intestines and others of the viscera. In many Invertebrates there is no separation of the body-cavity into thorax and abdomen, and it is only in the higher Annulosa that a distinct abdomen can be said to exist.
ABERRANT (Lat. aberro, I wander away). Departing from the regular type.
ABNORMAL (Lat. ab, from; norma, a rule). Irregular; deviating from the ordinary standard.
ACRODUS (Gr. akros, high; odous, tooth). A genus of the Cestraciont fishes, so called from the elevated teeth.
ACROGENS (Gr. akros, high; gennao, I produce). Plants which increase in height by additions made to the summit of the stem by the union of the bases of the leaves.
ACROTRETA (Gr. akros, high; tretos, pierced). A genus of Brachiopods, so called from the presence of a foramen at the summit of the shell.
ACTINOCRINUS (Gr. aktin, a ray; krinon, a lily). A genus of Crinoids.
ACTINOZOA (Gr. aktin, a ray; and zoön, an animal). That division of the Cœlenterata of which the Sea-anemones may be taken as the type.
ÆGLINA (Æglé, a sea-nymph). A genus of Trilobites.
ÆPIORNIS (Gr. aipus, huge; ornis, bird). A genus of gigantic Cursorial birds.
AGNOSTUS (Gr. a, not; gignosko, I know). A genus of Trilobites.
ALCES (Lat. alces, elk). The European Elk or Moose.
ALECTO (the proper name of one of the Furies). A genus of Polyzoa.
ALETHOPTERIS (Gr. alethes, true; pteris, fern). A genus of Ferns.
ALGÆ. (Lat. alga, a marine plant). The order of plants comprising the Sea-weeds and many fresh-water plants.
ALVEOLUS (Lat. alvus, belly). Applied to the sockets of the teeth.
AMBLYPTERUS (Gr. amblus, blunt; pteron, fin). An order of Ganoid Fishes.
AMBONYCHIA (Gr. ambon, a boss; onux, claw). A genus of Palæozoic Bivalves.
AMBULACRA (Lat. ambulacrum, a place for walking). The perforated spaces or "avenues" through which are protruded the tube-feet, by means of which locomotion is effected in the Echinodermata.
AMMONITIDÆ. A family of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods, so called from the resemblance of the shell of the type-genus, Ammonites, to the horns of the Egyptian God, Jupiter-Ammon.
AMORPHOZOA (Gr. a, without; morphe, shape; zoön, animal). A name sometimes used to designate the Sponges.
AMPHIBIA (Gr. amphi, both; bios, life). The Frogs, Newts, and the like, which have gills when young, but can always breathe air directly when adult.
AMPHICYON (Gr. amphi, both—implying doubt; kuon, dog). An extinct genus of Carnivora.
Page 380 AMPHILESTES (Gr. amphi, both; lestes, a thief). A genus of Jurassic Mammals.
AMPHISPONGIA (Gr. amphi, both; spoggos, sponge). A genus of Silurian sponges.
AMPHISTEGINA (Gr. amphi, both; stegé, roof). A genus of Foraminifera.
AMPHITHERIUM (Gr. amphi, both; therion, beast). A genus of Jurassic Mammals.
AMPHITRAGULUS (Gr. amphi, both; dim. of tragos, goat). An extinct genus related to the living Musk-deer.
AMPLEXUS (Lat. an Ambrace). A genus of Rugose Corals.
AMPYX (Gr. ampux, a wreath or wheel). A genus of Trilobites.
ANARTHROPODA (Gr. a. without; arthros, a joint; pous, foot). That division of Annulose animals in which there are no articulated appendages.
ANCHITHERIUM (Gr. agchi, near; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Mammals.
ANCYLOCERAS (Gr. agkulos, crooked; ceras, horn). A genus of Ammonitidœ.
ANCYLOTHERIUM (Gr. agkulos, crooked; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Edentate Mammals.
ANDRIAS (Gr. andrias, image of man). An extinct genus of tailed Amphibians.
ANGIOSPERMS (Gr. angeion, a vessel; sperma, seed). Plants which have their seeds enclosed in a seed-vessel.
ANNELIDA (a Gallicised form of Annulata). The Ringed Worms, which form one of the divisions of the Anarthropoda.
ANNULARIA (Lat. annulus, a ring). A genus of Palæozoic plants, with leaves in whorls.
ANNULOSA (Lat. annulus). The sub-kingdom comprising the Anarthropoda and the Arthropoda or Articulata, in all of which the body is more or less evidently composed of a succession of rings.
ANOMODONTIA (Gr. anomos, irregular; odous, tooth). An extinct order of Reptiles, often called Dicynodontia.
ANOMURA (Gr. anomos, irregular; oura, tail). A tribe of Decapod Crustacea, of which the Hermit-crab is the type.
ANOPLOTHERIDÆ (Gr. anoplos, unarmed; ther, beast). A family of Tertiary Ungulates.
ANOURA (Gr. a, without; oura, tail). The order of Amphibia comprising the Frogs and Toads, in which the adult is destitute of a tail. Often, called Batrachia.
ANTENNÆ (Lat. antenna, a yard-arm). The jointed horns or feelers possessed by the majority of the Articulata.
ANTENNULES (dim. of Antennœ). Applied to the smaller pair of antennæ in the Crustacea.
ANTHRACOSAURUS (Gr. anthrax, coal; saura, lizard). A genus of Labyrinthodont Amphibians.
ANTHRAPALÆMON (Gr. anthrax, coal; palœmon, a prawn—originally a proper name). A genus of long-tailed Crustaceans from the Coal-measures.
ANTLERS. Properly the branches of the horns of the Deer tribe (Cervidœ), but generally applied to the entire horns.
APIOCRINIDÆ (Gr. apion, a pear; krinon, lily). A family of Crinoids—the "Pear-encrinites."
APTERYX (Gr. a, without; pterux, a wing). A wingless bird of New Zealand, belong to the order Cursores.
AQUEOUS (Lat. aqua, water). Formed in or by water.
ARACHNIDA (Gr. arachne, a spider). A class of the Articulata, comprising Spiders, Scorpions, and allied animals.
ARBORESCENT. Branched like a tree.
ARCHÆOCIDARIS (Gr. archaios, ancient; Lat. cidaris, a diadem). A Palæozoic genus of Sea-urchins, related to the existing Cidaris.
ARCHÆOCYATHUS (Gr. archaios, ancient; kuathos, cup). A genus of Palæozoic fossils allied to the Sponges.
ARCHÆOPTERYX (Gr. archaios, ancient; pterux, a wing). The singular fossil bird which alone constitutes the order of the Saururœ.
Page 381 ARCTOCYON (Gr. arctos, bear; kuon, dog). An extinct genus of Carnivora.
ARENACEOUS. Sandy, or composed of grains of sand.
ARENICOLITES (Lat. arena, sand; colo, I inhabit). A genus founded on burrows supposed to be formed by worms resembling the living Lobworms (Arenicola).
ARTICULATA (Lat. articulus, a joint). A division of the animal kingdom, comprising Insects, Centipedes, Spiders, and Crustaceans, characterised by the possession of jointed bodies or jointed limbs. The term Arthropoda is now more usually employed.
ARTIODACTYLA (Gr. artios, even; daktulos, a finger or toe). A division of the hoofed quadrupeds (Ungulata) in which each foot has an even number of toes (two or four).
ASAPHUS (Gr. Asaphes, obscure). A genus of Trilobites.
ASCOCERAS (Gr. askos, a leather bottle; keras, horn). A genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
ASIPHONATE. Not possessing a respiratory tube or siphon. (Applied to a division of the Lamellibranchiate Molluscs.)
ASTEROID (Gr. aster, a star; and eidos, form). Star-shaped, or possessing radiating lobes or rays like a star-fish.
ASTEROIDEA. An order of Echinodermata, comprising the Star-fishes, characterised by their rayed form.
ASTEROPHYLLITES (Gr. aster, a star; phullon, leaf). A genus of Palæozoic plants, with leaves in whorls.
ASTRÆIDÆ (Gr. Astrœa, a proper name). The family of the Star-corals.
ASTYLOSPONGIA (Gr. a, without; stulos, a column; spoggos, a sponge). A genus of Silurian Sponges.
ATHYRIS (Gr. a, without; thura, door). A genus of Brachiopods.
ATRYPA (Gr. a, without; trupa, a hole). A genus of Brachiopods.
AVES (Lat. avis, a bird). The class of the Birds.
AVICULA (Lat. a little bird). The genus of Bivalve Molluscs comprising the Pearl-oysters.
AXOPHYLLUM (Gr. axon, a pivot; phullon, a leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
AZOIC (Gr. a, without; zoé, life). Destitute of traces of living beings.

BACULITES (Lat. baculum, a staff). A genus of the Ammonitidœ.
BALÆNA (Lat. a whale). The genus of the Whalebone Whales.
BALANIDÆ (Gr. balanos, an acorn). A family of sessile Cirripedes, commonly called "Acorn-shells."
BATRACHIA (Gr. batrachos, a frog). Often loosely applied to any of the Amphibia, but sometimes restricted to the Amphibians as a class, or to the single order of the Anoura.
BELEMNITIDÆ (Gr. belemnon, a dart). An extinct group of Dibranchiate Cephalopods, comprising the Belemnites and their allies.
BELEMNOTEUTHIS (Gr. belemnon, a dart; teuthis, a cuttle-fish). A genus allied to the Belemnites proper.
BELINURUS (Gr. belos, a dart; oura, tail). A genus of fossil King-crabs.
BELLEROPHON (Gr. proper name). A genus of oceanic Univalves (Heteropoda).
BELOTEUTHIS (Gr. belos, a dart; teuthis, a cuttle-fish). An extinct genus of Dibranchiate Cephalopods.
BEYRICHIA (named after Prof. Beyrich). A genus of Ostracode Crustaceans.
BILATERAL. Having two symmetrical sides.
BIMANA (Lat. Bis, twice; manus, a hand). The order of Mammalia comprising man alone.
BIPEDAL (Lat. bis, twice; pes, foot). Walking upon two legs.
BIVALVE (Lat. bis, twice; valvœ, folding-doors). Composed of two plates or valves; applied to the shell of the Lamellibranchiata and Brachiopoda, and to the carapace of certain Crustacea.
BLASTOIDEA (Gr. blastos, a bud; and eidos, form). An extinct order of Echinodermata, often called Pentremites.
BRACHIOPODA (Gr. brachion, an arm; pous, the foot). Page 382 A class or the Molluscoida, often called "Lamp-shells," characterised by possessing two fleshy arms continued from the sides of the mouth.
BRACHYURA (Gr. brachus, short; oura, tail). A tribe of the Decapod Crustaceans with short tails (i.e., the Crabs).
BRADYPODIDÆ. (Gr. bradus, slow; podes, feet). The family of Edentata comprising the Sloths.
BRANCHIA (Gr. bragchia, the gill of a fish). A respiratory organ adapted to breathe air dissolved in water.
BRANCHIATE. Possessing gills or branchiæ.
BRONTEUS (Gr. broné, thunder—an epithet of Jupiter the Thunderer). A genus of Trilobites.
BRONTOTHERIUM (Gr. bronté, thunder; therion beast). An extinct genus of Ungulate Quadrupeds.
BRONTOZOUM (Gr. bronté, thunder; zoön, animal). A genus founded on the largest footprints of the Triassic Sandstones of Connecticut.
BUCCINUM (Lat. buccinun, a trumpet). The genus of Univalves comprising the Whelks.

CAINOZOIC (See Kainozoic.)
CALAMITES (Lat. calamus, a reed). Extinct plants with reed-like stems, believed to be gigantic representatives of the Equisetaceœ.
CALCAREOUS (Lat. calx, lime). Composed of carbonate of lime.
CALICE. The little cup in which the polype of a coralligenous Zoophyte (Actinozoön) is contained.
CALYMENE (Gr. kalumené, concealed). A genus of Trilobites.
CALYX (Lat. a cup). Applied to the cup-shaped body of a Crinoid (Echinodermata).
CAMAROPHORIA (Gr. kamara, a chamber; phero, I carry). A genus of Brachiopods.
CAMELOPARDALIDÆ. (Lat. camelus, a camel; pardalis, a panther). The family of the Giraffes.
CANINE (Lat. canis, a dog). The eye-tooth of Mammals, or the tooth which is placed at or close to the præmaxillary suture in the upper jaw, and the corresponding tooth in the lower jaw.
CARAPACE. A protective shield. Applied to the upper shell of Crabs, Lobsters, and many other Crustacea. Also the upper half of the immovable case in which the body of a Chelonian is protected.
CARCHARODON (Gr. karcharos. rough; odous, tooth). A genus of Sharks.
CARDIOCARPON (Gr. kardia, the heart; karpos, fruit). A genus of fossil fruit from the Coal-measures.
CARDIUM (Gr. kardia, the heart). The genus of Bivalve Molluscs comprising the Cockles. Cardinia, Cardiola, and Cardita have the same derivation.
CARNIVORA (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, I devour). An order of the Mammalia. The "Beasts of Prey."
CARNIVOROUS (Lat. caro, flesh; voro, I devour). Feeding upon flesh.
CARYOCARIS (Gr. karua, a nut; karis, a shrimp). A genus of Phyllopod Crustaceans.
CARYOCRINUS (Gr. karua, a nut; krinon, a lily). A genus of Cystideans.
CAUDAL (Lat. cauda, the tail). Belonging to the tail.
CAVICORNIA (Lat. cavus, hollow; cornu, a horn). The "hollow-horned" Ruminants, in which the horn consists of a central bony "horn-core" surrounded by a horny sheath.
CENTRUM (Gr. kentron, the point round which a circle is described by a pair of compasses). The central portion or "body" of a vertebra.
CEPHALASPIDÆ. (Gr. kephale, head; aspis, shield). A family of fossil fishes.
CEPHALIC (Gr. kephale, head). Belonging to the head.
CEPHALOPODA (Gr. kephale; and podes, feet). A class of the Mollusca, comprising the Cuttle-fishes and their allies, in which there is a series of arms ranged round the head.
CERATIOCARIS (Gr. keras, a horn; karis, a shrimp). A genus of Phyllopod Crustaceans.
Page 383 CERATITES (Gr. keras, a horn). A genus of Ammonitidœ.
CERATODUS (Gr. keras, a horn; odous, tooth). A genus of Dipnoous fishes.
CERVICAL (Lat. cervix, the neck). Connected with or belonging to the region of the neck.
CERVIDÆ (Lat. cervus, a stag). The family of the Deer.
CESTRAPHORI (Gr. kestra, a weapon; phero, I carry). The group of the "Cestraciont Fishes," represented at the present day by the Port-Jackson Shark; so called from their defensive spines.
CETACEA (Gr. ketos, a whale). The order of Mammals comprising the Whales and the Dolphins.
CETIOSAURUS (Gr. ketos, whale; saura, lizard). A genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
CHEIROPTERA (Gr. cheir, hand; pteron, wing). The Mammalian order of the Bats.
CHEIROTHERIUM (Gr. cheir, hand; therion, beast). The generic name applied originally to the hand-shaped footprints of Labyrinthodonts.
CHEIRURUS (Gr. cheir, hand; oura, tail). A genus of Trilobites.
CHELONIA (Gr. cheloné, a tortoise). The Reptilian order of the Tortoises and Turtles.
CHONETES (Gr. choné or choané, a chamber or box). A genus of Brachiopods.
CIDARIS (Lat. a diadem). A genus of Sea-urchins.
CLADODUS (Gr. klados, branch; odous, tooth). A genus of Fishes.
CLATHROPORA (Lat. clathti, a trellis; porus, a pore). A genus of Lace-corals (Polyzoa).
CLISIOPHYLLUM (Gr. klision, a hut; phullon, leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
CLYMENIA (Clumene, a proper name). A genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
COCCOSTEUS (Gr. kokkos, berry; osteon, bone). A genus of Ganoid Fishes.
COCHLIODUS (Gr. kochlion, a snail-shell; odous, tooth). A genus of Cestraciont Fishes.
CŒLENTERATA (Gr. koilos, hollow; enteron, the bowel). The sub-kingdom which comprises the Hydrozoa and Actinozoa. Proposed by Frey and Leuckhart in place of the old term Radiata, which included other animals as well.
COLEOPTERA (Gr. koleos, a sheath; pteron, wing). The order of Insects (Beetles) in which the anterior pair of wings are hardened, and serve as protective cases for the posterior pair of membranous wings.
COLOSSOCHELYS (Gr. kolossos, a gigantic statue; chelus, a tortoise). A huge extinct Land-tortoise.
COMATULA (Gr. koma, the hair). The Feather-star, so called in allusion to its tress-like arms.
CONDYLE (Gr. kondulos, a knuckle). The surface by which one bone articulates with another. Applied especially to the articular surface or surfaces by which the skull articulates with the vertebral column.
CONIFERÆ (Lat. conus, a cone; fero, I carry). The order of the Firs, Pines, and their allies, in which the fruit is generally a "cone" or "fir-apple."
CONULARIA (Lat. conulus, a little-cone). An extinct genus of Pteropods.
COPRALITES (Gr. kopros, dung; lithos, stone). Properly applied to the fossilised excrements of animals; but often employed to designate phosphatic concretions which are not of this nature.
CORALLITE. The corallum secreted by an Actinozoön which consists of a single polype; or the portion of a composite corallum which belongs to, and is secreted by, an individual polype.
CORALLUM (from the Latin for Red Coral). The hard structures deposited in, or by the tissues of an Actinozoön,—commonly called a "coral."
CORIACEOUS (Lat. corium. hide). Leathery.
CORYPHODON (Gr. korus, helmet; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Mammals, allied to the Tapirs.
CRANIUM (Gr. kranion, the skull). The bony or cartilaginous case in which the brain is contained.
CRETACEOUS (Lat. creta, chalk). The formation which in Europe contains white chalk as one of its most conspicuous members.
Page 384 CRINOIDEA (Gr. krinon, a lily; eidos, form). An order of Echinodermata, comprising forms which are usually stalked, and sometimes resemble lilies in shape.
CRIOCERAS (Gr. krios, a ram; keras, a horn). A genus of Ammonitidœ.
CROCODILIA (Gr. krokodeilos, a crocodile). An order of Reptiles.
CROSSOPTERYGIDÆ. (Gr. krossotos, a fringe; pterux, a fin). A sub-order of Ganoids in which the paired fins possess a central lobe.
CRUSTACEA (Lat. crusta, a crust). A class of Articulate animals, comprising Crabs, Lobsters, &c., characterised by the possession of a hard shell or crust, which they cast periodically.
CRYPTOGAMS (Gr. kruptos, concealed; gamos, marriage). A division of plants in which the organs of reproduction are obscure and there are no true flowers.
CTENACANTHUS (Gr. kteis, a comb; akantha, a thorn). A genus of fossil fishes, named from its fin-spines.
CTENOID (Gr. kteis, a comb; eidos, form). Applied to those scales of fishes the hinder margins of which are fringed with spines or comb-like projections.
CURSORES (Lat. curro, I run). An order of Aves, comprising birds destitute of the power of flight, but formed for running vigorously (e.g., the Ostrich and Emeu).
CUSPIDATE. Furnished with small pointed eminences or "cusps."
CYATHOCRINUS (Gr. kuathos, a cup; krinon, a lily). A genus of Crinoids.
CYATHOPHYLLUM (Gr. kuathos, a cup; phullon, a leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
CYCLOID (Gr. kuklos, a circle; eidos, form). Applied to those scales of fishes which have a regularly circular or elliptical outline with an even margin.
CYCLOPHTHALMUS (Gr. kuklos, a circle; ophthalmos, eye). A genus of fossil Scorpions.
CYCLOSTOMI (Gr. kuklos, and stoma, mouth). Sometimes used to designate the Hag-fishes and Lampreys, forming the order Marsipobranchii.
CYPRÆA (a name of Venus). The genus of Univalve Molluscs comprising the Cowries.
CYRTOCERAS (Gr. kurtos. crooked; keras, horn). A genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
CYSTIPHYLLUM (Gr. kustis, a bladder; phullon, a leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
CYSTOIDEA (Gr. kustis, a bladder; eidos, form). The "Globe-crinoids," an extinct order of Echinodermata.

DADOXYLON (Gr. dadion, a torch; xulon, wood). An extinct genus of Coniferous trees.
DECAPODA (Gr. deka, ten; podes, feet). The division of Crustacea which have ten feet; also the family of Cuttle-fishes, in which there are ten arms or cephalic processes.
DECIDUOUS (Lat. decido, I fall off). Applied to parts which fall off or are shed during the life of the animal.
DEINOSAURIA (Gr. deinos, terrible; saura, lizard). An extinct order of Reptiles.
DEINOTHERIUM (Gr. deinos, terrible; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Proboscidean Mammals.
DENDROGRAPTUS (Gr. dendron, tree; grapho, I write). A genus of Graptolites.
DESMIDIÆ. Minute fresh-water plants, of a green colour, without a siliceous epidermis.
DIATOMACEÆ (Gr. diatemno, I sever). An order of minute plants which are provided with siliceous envelopes.
DIBRANCHIATA (Gr. dis; twice; bragchia, gill). The order of Cephalopoda (comprising the Cuttle-fishes, &c.) in which only two gills are present.
DICERAS (Gr. dis, twice; keras, horn). An extinct genus of Bivalve Molluscs.
DICTYONEMA (Gr. diktuon, a net; nema, thread). An extinct genus of Polyzoa.
Page 385 DICYNODONTIA (Gr. dis, twice; kuon, dog; odous, tooth). An extinct order of Reptiles.
DIDYMOGRAPTUS (Gr. didumos, twin; grapho, I write). A genus of Graptolites.
DIMORPHODON (Gr. dis, twice; morphé, shape; oduos, tooth). A genus of Pterosaurian reptiles.
DINICHTHYS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ichthus, fish). An extinct genus of Fishes.
DINOCERAS (Gr. deinos, terrible; keras, horn). An extinct genus of Mammals.
DINOPHIS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ophis, snake). An extinct genus of Snakes.
DINORNIS (Gr. deinos, terrible; ornis, bird). An extinct genus of Birds.
DIPLOGRAPTUS (Gr. diplos, double; grapho, I write). A genus of Graptolites.
DIPNOI (Gr. dis, twice; pnoé, breath). An order of Fishes, comprising the Mud-fishes, so called in allusion to their double mode of respiration.
DIPROTODON (Gr. dis, twice; protos, first; odous, tooth). A genus of extinct Marsupials.
DIPTERA (Gr. dis, twice; pteron, wing). An order of Insects characterised by the possession of two wings.
DISCOID (Gr. diskos, a quoit; eidos, form). Shaped like a round plate or quoit.
DOLOMITE (named after M. Dolomieu). Magnesian limestone.
DORSAL (Lat. dorsum, the back). Connected with or placed upon the back.
DROMATHERIUM (Gr. dromaios, nimble; therion, beast). A genus of Triassic Mammals.
DRYOPITHECUS (Gr. drus, an oak; pithekos, an ape). An extinct genus of Monkeys.

ECHINODERMATA (Gr. echinos; and derma, skin). A class of animals comprising the Sea-urchins, Star-fishes, and others, most of which have spiny skins.
ECHINOIDEA (Gr. echinos; and eidos, form). An order of Echinodermata, comprising the Sea-urchins.
EDENTATA (Lat. e, without; dens, tooth). An order of Mammalia often called Bruta.
EDENTULOUS. Toothless, without any dental apparatus. Applied to the mouth of any animal, or to the hinge of the Bivalve Molluscs.
ELASMOBRANCHII (Gr. elasma, a plate; bragchia, gill). An order of Fishes, including the Sharks and Rays.
ENALIOSAURIA (Gr. enalios, marine; saura, lizard), Sometimes employed as a common term to designate the extinct Reptilian orders of the Ichthyosauria and Plesiosauria.
EOCENE (Gr. eos, dawn; kainos, new or recent). The lowest division of the Tertiary rocks, in which species of existing shells are to a small extent represented.
EOPHYTON (Gr. eos, dawn; phuton, a plant). A genus of Cambrian fossils, supposed to be of a vegetable nature.
EOZOÖN (Gr. eos, dawn; zoön, animal). A genus of chambered calcareous organisms found in the Laurentian and Huronian formations.
EQUILATERAL (Lat. œquus, equal; latus, side). Having its sides equal. Usually applied to the shells of the Brachiopoda. When applied to the spiral shells of the Foraminifera, it means that all the convolutions of the shell lie in the same plane.
EQUISETACEÆ (Lat. equus, horse; seta, bristle). A group of Cryptogamous plants, commonly known as "Horse-tails."
EQUIVALVE (Lat. œquus, equal; valvœ, folding-doors). Applied to shells which are composed of two equal pieces or valves.
ERRANTIA (Lat. erro, I wander). An order of Annelida, often called Nereidea, distinguished by their great locomotive powers.
EUOMPHALUS (Gr. eu, well; omphalos, navel). An extinct genus of Univalve Molluscs.
EURYPTERIDA (Gr. eurus, broad; pteron, wing). An extinct sub-order of Crustacea.
EXOGYRA (Gr. exo, outside; guros, circle). An extinct genus of Oysters.

Page 386 FAUNA (Lat. Fauni, the rural deities of the Romans). The general assemblage of the animals of any region or district.
FAVOSITES (Lat. favus, a honeycomb). A genus of Tabulate Corals.
FENESTELLIDÆ. (Lat. fenestella, a little window). The "Lace-corals," a group of Palæozoic Polyzoans.
FILICES (Lat. filix, a fern). The order of Cryptogamic plants comprising the Ferns.
FILIFORM (Lat. filum, a thread; forma, shape). Thread-shaped.
FLORA (Lat. Flora, the goddess of flowers). The general assemblage of the plants of any region or district.
FORAMINIFERA (Lat. foramen, an aperture; fero, I carry). An order of Protozoa, usually characterised by the possession of a shell perforated by numerous pseudopodial apertures.
FRUGIVOROUS (Lat. frux, fruit; voro, I devour). Living upon fruits.
FUCOIDS (Lat. fucus, sea-weed; Gr. eidos, likeness). Fossils, often of an obscure nature, believed to be the remains of sea-weeds.
FUSULINA (Lat. fusus, a spindle). An extinct genus of Foraminifera.

GANOID (Gr, ganos, splendour, brightness). Applied to those scales or plates which are composed of an inferior layer of true bone covered by a superior layer of polished enamel.
GANOIDEI. An order of Fishes.
GASTEROPODA (Gr. gaster, stomach; pous, foot). The class of the Mollusca comprising the ordinary Univalves, in which locomotion is usually effected by a muscular expansion of the under surface of the body (the "foot").
GLOBIGERINA (Lat. globus, a globe; gero, I carry). A genus of Foraminifera.
GLYPTODON (Gr. glupho, I engrave; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Armadillos, so named in allusion to the fluted teeth.
GONIATITES (Gr. gonia, angle). A genus of Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods.
GRALLATORES (Lat. grallœ, stilts). The order of the long-legged Wading Birds.
GRAPTOLITIDÆ. (Gr. grapho, I write; lithos, stone). An extinct sub-class of the Hydrozoa.
GYMNOSPERMS (Gr. gumnos, naked; sperma, seed). The Conifers and Cycads, in which the seed is not protected within a seed-vessel.

HALITHERIUM (Gr. hals, sea; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Sea-cows (Sirenia).
HAMITES (Lat. hamus, a hook). A genus of the Ammonitidœ.
HELIOPHYLLUM (Gr. helios, the sun; phullon, leaf). A genus of Rugose Corals.
HELLADOTHERIUM (Gr. Hellas, Greece; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Ungulate Mammals.
HEMIPTERA (Gr. hemi, and pteron, wing). An order of Insects in which the anterior wings are sometimes "hemelytra."
HESPERORNIS (Gr. Hesperos, the evening star; ornis, bird). An extinct genus of Birds.
HETEROCERCAL (Gr. heteros, diverse; kerkos, tail). Applied to the tail of Fishes when it is unsymmetrical, or composed of two unequal lobes.
HETEROPODA (Gr. heteros, diverse; podes, feet). An aberrant group of the Gasteropods, in which the foot is modified so as to form a swimming organ.
HIPPARION (Gr. hipparion, a little horse). An extinct genus of Equidœ.
HIPPOPOTAMUS (Gr. hippos, horse; potamos, river). A genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds—the "River-horses."
HIPPURITIDÆ. (Gr. hippos, horse; oura, tail). An extinct family of Bivalve Molluscs.
HOLOPTYCHIUS (Gr. holos, whole; ptucé, wrinkle). An extinct genus of Ganoid Fishes.
HOLOSTOMATA (Gr. holos, whole; stoma, mouth). A division of Gasteropodous Molluscs, in which the aperture of the shell is rounded, or "entire."
HOLOTHUROIDEA (Gr. holothourion, and eidos, form). An order of Echinodermata comprising the Trepangs.
Page 387 HOMOCERCAL (Gr. homos, same; kerkol, tail). Applied to the tail of Fishes when it is symmetrical, or composed of two equal lobes.
HYBODUNTS (Gr. hubos, curved; odous, tooth). A group of Fishes of which Hybodus is the type-genus.
HYDROIDA (Gr. hudra; and eidos, form). The sub-class of the Hydrozoa, which comprises the animals most nearly allied to the Hydra.
HYDROZOA (Gr. hudra; and zoön, animal). The class of the Cœlenterata which comprises animals constructed after the type of the Hydra.
HYMENOPTERA (Gr. humen, a membrane; pteron, a wing). An order of Insects (comprising Bees, Ants, &c.) characterised by the possession of four membranous wings.

ICHTHYODORULITE (Gr. ichthus, fish; dorus, spear; lithos, stone). The fossil fin-spine of Fishes.
ICHTHYOPTERYGIA (Gr. ichthus; pterux, wing). An extinct order of Reptiles.
ICHTHYORNIS (Gr. ichthus, fish; ornis, bird). An extinct genus of Birds.
ICHTHYOSAURIA (Gr. ichthus; saura, lizard). Synonymous with Ichthyopterygia.
IGUANODON (Iguana, a living lizard; Gr. odous, tooth). A genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
INCISOR (Lat. incido, I cut). The cutting teeth fixed in the intermaxillary bones of the Mammalia, and the corresponding teeth in the lower jaw.
INEQUILATERAL. Having the two sides unequal, as in the case of the shells of the ordinary bivalves (Lamellibranchiata). When applied to the shells of the Foraminifera, it implies that the convolutions of the shell do not lie in the same plane, but are obliquely wound round an axis.
INEQUIVALVE. Composed of two unequal pieces or valves.
INOCERAMUS (Gr. is, a fibre; keramos, an earthen vessel). An extinct genus of Bivalve Molluscs.
INSECTA (Lat. inseco, I cut into). The class of articulate animals commonly known as Insects.
INSECTIVORA (Lat. insectum, an insect; voro, I devour). An order of Mammals.
INSECTIVOROUS. Living upon Insects.
INSESSORES (Lat. insedeo, I sit upon). The order of the Perching Birds, often called Passeres.
INTERAMBULACRA. The rows of plates in an Echinoid which are not perforated for the emission of the "tube-feet."
INTERMMAXILLÆ or PRÆMAXILLÆ. The two bones which are situated between the two superior maxillæ in Vertebrata. In man, and some monkeys, the præmaxillæ anchylose with the maxillæ, so as to be irrecognisable in the adult.
INVERTEBRATA (Lat. in, without; vertebra, a bone of the back). Animals without a spinal column or backbone.
ISOPODA. (Gr. isos, equal; podes, feet). An order of Crustacea in which the feet are like one another and equal.

KAINOZOIC (Gr. kainos, recent; zoe, life). The Tertiary period in Geology comprising those formations in which the organic remains approximate more or less closely to the existing fauna and flora.

LABYRINTHODONTIA (Gr. laburinthos, a labyrinth; odous, tooth). An extinct order of Amphibia, so called from the complex microscopic structure of the teeth.
LACERTILIA (Lat. lacerta, a lizard). An order of Reptilia comprising the Lizards and Slow-worms.
LAMELLIBRANCHIATA (Lat. lamella, a plate; Gr. bragchia, gill). The class of Mollusca comprising the ordinary bivalves, characterised by the possession of lamellar gills.
LEPIDODENDRON (Gr. lepis, a scale; dendron, a tree). A genus of extinct plants, so named from the scale-like scars upon the stem left by the falling off of the leaves.
Page 388 LEPIDOPTERA (Gr. lepis, a scale; pteron, a wing). An order of Insects, comprising Butterflies and Moths, characterised by possessing four wings which are usually covered with minute scales.
LEPIDOSIREN (Gr. lepis, a scale; seiren, a siren—the generic name of the Mud-eel or Siren lacertina). A genus of Dipnoous fishes, comprising the "Mud-fishes."
LEPIDOSTROBUS (Gr. lepis, a scale; strobilos, a fir-cone). A genus founded on the cones of Lepidodendron.
LEPTÆNA (Gr. leptos. slender). A genus of Brachiopods.
LINGULA (Lat. lingula, a little tongue). A genus of Brachiopods.
LYCOPODIACEÆ (Gr. lupos, a wolf; pous, foot). The group of Cryptogamic plants generally known as "Club-mosses."

MACHÆRACANTHUS (Gr. machaira, a sabre; acantha, thorn or spine). An extinct genus of Fishes.
MACHAIRODUS (Gr. machaira, a sabre; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Carnivora.
MACROTHERIUM (Gr. makros, long; therion. beast). An extinct genus of Edentata.
MACRURA (Gr. makros, long; oura, tail). A tribe of Decapod Crustaceans with long tails (e.g., the Lobster, Shrimp, &c.)
MAMMALIA (Lat. mamma, the breast). The class of Vertebrate animals which suckle their young.
MANDIBLE (Lat. mandibulum, a jaw). The upper pair of jaws in Insects; also applied to one of the pairs of jaws in Crustacea and Spiders, to the beak of Cephalopods, the lower jaw of Vertebrates, &c.
MANTLE. The external integument of most of the Mollusca, which is largely developed, and forms a cloak in which the viscera are protected. Technically called the "pallium."
MANUS (Lat. the hand). The hand of the higher Vertebrates.
MARSIPOBRANCHII (Gr. marsipos, a pouch; bragchia, gill). The order of Fishes comprising the Hag-fishes and Lampreys, with pouch-like gills.
MARSUPIALIA (Lat. marsupium, a pouch). An order of Mammals in which the females mostly have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried.
MASTODON (Gr. mastos, nipple; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Elephantine Mammals.
MEGALONYX (Gr. megas, great; onux, nail). An extinct genus of Edentate Mammals.
MEGALOSAURUS (Gr. megas, great; saura, lizard). A genus of Deinosaurian Reptiles.
MEGATHERIUM (Gr. megas, great; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Edentata.
MESOZOIC (Gr. mesos, middle; and zoe, life). The Secondary period in Geology.
MICROLESTES (Gr. mikros, little; lestes, thief). An extinct genus of Triassic Mammals.
MILLEPORA (Lat. mille, one thousand; porus, a pore). A genus of "Tabulate Corals."
MIOCENE (Gr. meion, less; kainol, new). The Middle Tertiary period.
MOLARS (Lat. mola, a mill). The "grinders" in man, or the teeth in diphyodont Mammals which are not preceded by milk-teeth.
MOLLUSCA (Lat. mollis, soft). The sub-kingdom which includes the Shell-fish proper, the Polyzoa, the Tunicata, and the Lamp-shells; so called from the generally soft nature of their bodies.
MOLLUSCOIDA (Mollusca; Gr. eidos, form). The lower division of the Mollusca, comprising the Polyzoa, Tunicata, and Brachiopoda.
MONOGRAPTUS (Gr. monos, single; grapho, I write). A genus of Graptolites.
MYLODON (Gr. mulos, a mill; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Edentate Mammals.
MYRIAPODA or MYRIOPODA (Gr. murios, ten thousand; podes, feet). A class of Arthropoda comprising the Centipedes and their allies, characterised by their numerous feet.

Page 389 NATATORES (Lat. nare, to swim). The order of the Swimming Birds.
NATATORY (Lat. nare, to swim). Formed for swimming.
NAUTILOID. Resembling the shell of the Nautilus in shape.
NERVURES (Lat. nervus, a sinew). The ribs which support the membranous wings of insects.
NEUROPTERA (Gr. neuron, a nerve; pteron, a wing). An order of Insects characterised by four membranous wings with numerous reticulated nervures (e.g., Dragon-flies).
NEUROPTERIS (Gr. neuron, a nerve; pteris, a fern). An extinct genus of Ferns.
NOTHOSAURUS (Gr. nothos, spurious; saura, lizard). A genus of Plesiosaurian Reptiles.
NOTOCHORD (Gr. notos, back; chorde, string). A cellular rod which is developed in the embryo of Vertebrates immediately beneath the spinal cord, and which is usually replaced in the adult by the vertebral column. Often it is spoken of as the "chorda dorsalis."
NUDIBRANCHIATA (Lat. nudus, naked; and Gr. bragchia, gill). An order of the Gasteropoda in which the gills are naked.
NUMMULINA (Lat. nummus, a coin). A genus of Foraminifera, comprising the coin-shaped "Nummulites."

OBOLELLA (Lat. dim. of obolus, a small coin). An extinct genus of Brachiopods.
OCCIPITAL. Connected with the occiput, or the back part of the head.
OCEANIC. Applied to animals which inhabit the open ocean (= pelagic).
ODONTOPTERYX (Gr. oduos, tooth; pterux, wing). An extinct genus of Birds.
ODONTORNITHES (Gr. oduos, tooth; ornis, bird). The extinct order of Birds, comprising forms with distinct teeth in sockets.
OLIGOCENE (Gr. oligos, few; kainos, new). A name used by many Continental geologists as synonymous with the Lower Miocene.
OPHIDIA (Gr. ophis, a serpent). The order of Reptiles comprising the Snakes.
OPHIUROIDEA (Gr. ophis, snake; oura, tail; eidos, form). An order of Echinodermata, comprising the Brittle-stars and Sand-stars.
ORNITHOSCELIDA (Gr. ornis, bird; skelos, leg). Applied by Huxley to the Deinosaurian Reptiles, together with the genus Compsognathus, on account of the bird-like character of their hind-limbs.
ORTHIS (Gr. orthos, straight). A genus of Brachiopods, named in allusion to the straight hinge-line.
ORTHOCERATIDÆ (Gr. orthos, straight; keras, horn). A family of the Nautilidœ, in which the shell is straight, or nearly so.
ORTHOPTERA (Gr. orthos, straight; pteron, wing). An order of Insects.
OSTEOLEPIS (Gr. osteon, bone; lepis, scale). An extinct genus of Ganoid Fishes.
OSTRACODA (Gr. ostrakon, a shell). An order of small Crustaceans which are enclosed in bivalve shells.
OTODUS (Gr. ota, ears; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Sharks.
OUDENODON (Gr. ouden, none; odous, tooth). A genus of Dicynodont Reptiles.
OVIBUS (Lat. ovis, sheep; bos, ox). The genus comprising the Musk-ox.

PACHYDERMATA (Gr. pachus, thick; derma, skin). An old Mammalian order constituted by Cuvier for the reception of the Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Elephant, &c.
PALÆASTER (Gr. palaios, ancient; aster, star). An extinct genus of Star-fishes.
PALÆOCARIS (Gr. palaios, ancient; karis, shrimp). An extinct genus of Decapod Crustaceans.
PALÆOLITHIC (Gr. palaios, ancient; lithos, stone). Applied to the rude stone implements of the earliest known races of men, to the men who made these implements, or to the period at which they were made.
Page 390 PALÆONTOLOGY (Gr. palaios, ancient; and logos, discourse). The science of fossil remains or of extinct organised beings.
PALÆOPHIS (Gr. palaios, ancient; ophis, serpent). An extinct genus of Snakes.
PALÆOSAURUS (Gr. palaios, ancient; saura, lizard). A genus of Thecodont Reptiles.
PALÆOTHERIDÆ. (Gr. palaios, ancient; ther, beast). A group of Tertiary Ungulates.
PALÆOZOIC (Gr. palaios, ancient; and zoe, life). Applied to the oldest of the great geological epochs.
PARADOXIDES (Lat. paradoxus, marvellous). A genus of Trilobites.
PATAGIUM (Lat. the border of a dress). Applied to the expansion of the integument by which Bats, Flying Squirrels, and other animals support themselves in the air.
PECOPTERIS (Gr. peko, I comb; pteris, a fern). An extinct genus of Ferns.
PECTEN (Lat. a comb). The genus of Bivalve Molluscs comprising the Scallops.
PECTORAL (Lat. pectus, chest). Connected with, or placed upon, the chest.
PENTACRINUS (Gr. penta, five; krinon, lily). A genus of Crinoids in which the column is five-sided.
PENTAMERUS (Gr. penta, five; meros, part). An extinct genus of Brachiopods.
PENTREMITES (Gr. penta, five; trema, aperture). A genus of Blastoidea, so named in allusion to the apertures at the summit of the calyx.
PERENNIBRANCHIATA (Lat. perennis, perpetual; Gr. bragchia, gill). Applied to those Amphibia in which the gills are permanently retained throughout life.
PERISSODACTYLA (Gr. perissos, uneven; daktulos, finger). Applied to those Hoofed Quadrupeds (Ungulata) in which the feet have an uneven number of toes.
PETALOID. Shaped like the petal of a flower.
PHACOPS (Gr. phaké, a lentil; ops, the eye). A genus of Trilobites.
PHALANGES (Gr. phalanx, a row). The small bones composing the digits of the higher Vertebrata. Normally each digit has three phalanges.
PHANEROGAMS (Gr. phaneros, visible; gamos, marriage). Plants which have the organs of reproduction conspicuous, and which bear true flowers.
PHARYNGOBRANCHII (Gr. pharugx, pharynx; bragchia, gill). The order of Fishes comprising only the Lancelet.
PHASCOLOTHERIUM (Gr. phaskolos, a pouch; therion, a beast). A genus of Oolitic Mammals.
PHRAGMACONE (Gr. phragma, a partition; and konos, a cone). The chambered portion of the internal shell of a Belemnite.
PHYLLOPODA (Gr. phullon, leaf; and pous, foot). An order of Crustacea.
PINNATE (Lat. pinna, a feather). Feather-shaped; or possessing lateral processes.
PINNIGRADA (Lat. pinna, a feather; gradior, I walk). The group of Carnivora, comprising the Seals and Walruses, adapted for an aquatic life. Often called Pinnipedia.
PINNULÆ. (Lat. dim. of pinna). The lateral processes of the arms of Crinoids.
PISCES (Lat. piscis, a fish). The class of Vertebrates comprising the Fishes.
PLACOID (Gr. plax, a plate; eidos, form). Applied to the irregular bony plates, grains, or spines which are found in the skin of various fishes (Elasmobranchii).
PLAGIOSTOMI (Gr. plagios, transverse; stoma, mouth). The Sharks and Rays, in which the mouth is transverse, and is placed on the under surface of the head.
PLATYCERAS (Gr. platus, broad; keras, horn). A genus of Univalve Molluscs.
PLATYCRINUS (Gr. platus, broad; krinom, lily). A genus of Crinoidea.
PLATYRHINA (Gr. platus, broad; rhines, nostrils). A group of the Quadrumana.
PLATYSOMUS (Gr. platus, wide; soma, body). A genus of Ganoid Fishes.
PLEISTOCENE (Gr. pleistos, most; kainos, new). Often used as synonymous with "Post-Pliocene."
Page 391 PLEUROTOMARIA (Gr. pleura, the side; tomé, notch). A genus of Univalve shells.
PLIOCENE (Gr. pleion, more; kainos, new). The later Tertiary period.
PLIOPITHECUS (Gr. pleion, more; pithekos, ape). An extinct genus of monkeys.
PLIOSAURUS (Gr. pleion, more; saura, lizard). A genus of Plesiosaurian Reptiles.
POLYCYSTINA (Gr. polus, many; and kustis, a cyst). An order of Protozoa with foraminated siliceous shells.
POLYPARY. The hard chitinous covering secreted by many of the Hydrozoa.
POLYPE (Gr. polus, many; pous, foot). Restricted to the single individual of a simple Actinozoön, such as a Sea-anemone, or to the separate zooids of a compound Actinozoön. Often applied indiscriminately to any of the Cœlenterata, or even to the Polyzoa.
POLYPORA (Gr. polus, many; poros, a passage). A genus of Lace-corals (Fenestellidœ).
POLYTHALAMOUS (Gr. polus; and thalamos, chamber). Having many chambers; applied to the shells of Foraminifera and Cephalopoda.
POLYZOA (Gr. polus; and zoön, animal). A division of the Molluscoida comprising compound animals, such as the Sea-mat—sometimes called Bryozoa.
PORIFERA (Lat. porus, pore; and fero, I carry). Sometimes used to designate the Foraminifera, or the Sponges.
PRÆMOLARS (Lat. prœ, before; molares, the grinders). The molar teeth of Mammals which succeed the molars of the milk-set of teeth. In man, the bicuspid teeth.
PROBOSCIDEA (Lat. proboscis, the snout). The order of Mammals comprising the Elephants.
PROCŒLOUS (Gr. pro, before; koilos, hollow). Applied to vertebræ the bodies of which are hollow or concave in front.
PRODUCTA (Lat. productus, drawn out or extended). An extinct genus of Brachiopods, in which the shell is "eared," or has its lateral angles drawn out.
PROTICHNITES (Gr. protos, first; ichnos, footprint). Applied to certain impressions in the Potsdam sandstone of North America, believed to have been produced by large Crustaceans.
PROTOPHYTA (Gr. protos; and phuton, plant). The lowest division of plants.
PROTOPLASM (Gr. protos; and plasso I mould). The elementary basis of organised tissues. Sometimes used synonymously for the "sarcode" of the Protozoa.
PROTOROSAURUS or PROTEROSAURUS (Gr. protos, first; orao, I see or discover; saura, lizard: or proteros, earlier; saura, lizard). A genus of Permian lizards.
PROTOZOA (Gr. protos; and zoön, animal). The lowest division of the animal kingdom.
PSAMMODUS (Gr. psammos, sand; odous, tooth). An extinct genus of Cestraciont Sharks.
PSEUDOPODIA (Gr. pseudos, falsity; and pous, foot). The extensions of the body-substance which are put forth by the Rhizopoda at will, and which serve for locomotion and prehension.
PSILOPHYTON (Gr. psilos, bare; phuton, plant). An extinct genus of Lycopodiaceous plants.
PTERANODON (Gr. pteron, wing; a, without; odous, tooth). A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
PTERASPIS (Gr. pteron, wing; aspis, shield). A genus of Ganoid Fishes.
PTERICHTHYS (Gr. pteron, wing; ichthus, fish). A genus of Ganoid Fishes.
PTERODACTYLUS (Gr. pteron, wing; daktulos, finger). A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
PTEROPODA (Gr. pteron, wing; and pous, foot). A class of the Mollusca which swim by means of fins attached near the head.
PTEROSAURIA (Gr. pteron, wing; saura, lizard). An extinct order of Reptiles.
PTILODICTYA (Gr. ptilon, a feather; diktuon, a net). An extinct genus of Polyzoa.
Page 392 PTYCHOCERAS (Gr. ptucé, a fold; keras, a horn). A genus of Ammonitidœ.
PULMONATE. Possessing lungs.
PYRIFORM (Lat. pyrus, a pear; and forma, form). Pear-shaped.

QUADRUMANA (Lat. quatuor, four; manus, hand). The order of Mammals comprising the Apes, Monkeys, Baboons, Lemurs, &c.

RADIATA (Lat. radius, a ray). Formerly applied to a large number of animals which are now placed in separate sub-kingdoms (e.g., the Cœlenterata, the Echinodermata, the Infusoria, &c.)
RADIOLARIA (Lat. radius, a ray). A division of Protozoa.
RAMUS (Lat. a branch). Applied to each half or branch of the lower jaw, or mandible, of Vertebrates.
RAPTORES (Lat. rapto, I plunder). The order of the Birds of Prey.
RASORES (Lat. rado, I scratch). The order of the Scratching Birds (Fowls. Pigeons, &c.)
RECEPTACULITES (Lat. receptaculum, a storehouse). An extinct genus of Protozoa.
REPTILIA (Lat. repto, I crawl). The class of the Vertebrata comprising the Tortoises, Snakes, Lizards, Crocodiles, &c.
RETEPORA (Lat. reté, a net; porus, a pore). A genus of Lace-corals (Polyzoa).
RHAMPHORHYNCHUS (Gr. rhamphos, beak; rhugchos, nose). A genus of Pterosaurian Reptiles.
RHINOCEROS (Gr. rhis, the nose; keras, horn). A genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds.
RHIZOPODA (Gr. rhiza, a root; and pous, foot). The division of Protozoa comprising all those which are capable of emitting pseudopodia.
RHYNCHOLITES (Gr. rhugchos, beak; and lithos, stone). Beak-shaped fossils consisting of the mandibles of Cephalopoda.
RHYNCHONELLA (Gr. rhugchos, nose or beak). A genus of Brachiopods.
RODENTIA (Lat. rodo, I gnaw). An order of the Mammals; often called Glires (Lat. glis, a dormouse).
ROTALIA (Lat. rota, a wheel). A genus of Foraminifera.
RUGOSA (Lat. rugosus, wrinkled). An order of Corals.
RUMINANTIA (Lat. ruminor, I chew the cud). The group of Hoofed Quadrupeds (Ungulata) which "ruminate" or chew the cud.

SARCODE (Gr. sarx, flesh; eidos, form). The jelly-like substance of which the bodies of the Protozoa are composed. It is an albuminous body containing oil-granules, and is sometimes called "animal protoplasm."
SAURIA (Gr. saura, a lizard). Any lizard-like Reptile is often spoken of as a "Saurian;" but the term is sometimes restricted to the Crocodiles alone, or to the Crocodiles and Lacertilians.
SAUROPTERYGIA (Gr. sauro; pterux, wing). An extinct order of Reptiles, called by Huxley Plesiosauria, from the typical genus Plesiosaurus.
SAURURÆ (Gr. saura; oura, tail). The extinct order of Birds comprising only the Archœopteryx.
SCANSORES (Lat. scando, I climb). The order of the Climbing Birds (Parrots, Woodpeckers, &c.)
SCAPHITES (Lat. scapha, a boat). A genus of the Ammonitidœ.
SCOLITHUS (Gr. skolex, a worm; lithos, a stone). The vertical burrows of sea-worms in rocks.
SCUTA (Lat. scutum, a shield). Applied to any shield-like plates; especially to those which are developed in the integument of many Reptiles.
SELACHIA or SELACHII (Gr. selachos, a cartilaginous fish, probably a shark). The sub-order of Elasmobranchii comprising the Sharks and Dog-fishes.
SEPIOSTAIRE. The internal shell of the Sepia, commonly known as the "cuttle-bone."
SEPTA. Partitions.
SERPENTIFORM. Resembling a serpent in shape.
SERTULARIDA (Lat. sertum, a wreath). An order of Hydrozoa.
Page 393 SESSILE (Lat. sedo, I sit). Not supported upon a stalk or peduncle; attached by a base.
SETHÆ (Lat. bristles). Bristles or long stiff hairs.
SIGILLARIOIDS (Lat. sigilla, little images). A group of extinct plants of which Sigillaria is the type, so called from the seal-like markings on the bark.
SILICEOUS (Lat. silex, flint). Composed of flint.
SINISTRAL (Lat. sinistra, the left hand). Left-handed; applied to the direction of the spiral in certain shells, which are said to be "reversed."
SIPHON (Gr. a tube). Applied to the respiratory tubes in the Mollusca; also to other tubes of different functions.
SIPHONIA (Gr. siphon, a tube). A genus of fossil Sponges.
SIPHONOSTOMATA (Gr. siphon; and stoma, mouth). The division of Gasteropodous Molluscs in which the aperture of the shell is not "entire," but possesses a notch or tube for the emission of the respiratory siphon.
SIPHUNCLE (Lat. siphunculus, a little tube). The tube which connects together the various chambers of the shell of certain Cephalopoda (e.g., the Pearly Nautilus).
SIRENIA (Gr. seiren. a mermaid). The order of Mammalia comprising the Dugongs and Manatees.
SIVATHERIUM (Siva, a Hindoo deity; Gr. therion, beast). An extinct genus of Hoofed Quadrupeds.
SOLIDUNGULA (Lat. solidus, solid; ungula, a hoof). The group of Hoofed Quadrupeds comprising the Horse, Ass, and Zebra, in which each foot has only a single solid hoof. Often called Solipedia.
SPHENOPTERIS (Gr. sphen, a wedge; pteris, a fern). An extinct genus of ferns.
SPICULA (Lat. spicidum, a point). Pointed needle-shaped bodies.
SPIRIFERA (Lat. spira, a spire or coil; fero, I carry). An extinct genus of Brachiopods, with large spiral supports for the "arms."
SPIRORBIS (Lat. spira, a spire; orbis, a circle). A genus of tube-inhabiting Annelides, in which the shelly tube is coiled into a spiral disc.
SPONGIDA (Gr. spoggos, a sponge). The division of Protozoa commonly known as sponges.
STALACTITES (Gr. stalasso, I drop). Icicle-like encrustations and deposits of lime, which hang from the roof of caverns in limestone.
STALAGMITE (Gr. stalagma, a drop). Encrustations of lime formed on the floor of caverns which are hollowed out of limestone.
STIGMARIA (Gr. stigma, a mark made with a pointed instrument). A genus founded on the roots of various species of Sigillaria.
STRATUM (Lat. stratus, spread out; or stratum, a thing spread out). A layer of rock.
STROMATOPORA (Gr. stroma, a thing spread out; paras, a passage or pore). A Palæozoic genus of Protozoa.
STROPHOHENA (Gr. strophao, I twist; mené, moon). An extinct genus of Brachiopods.
SUB-CALCAREOUS. Somewhat calcareous.
SUB-CENTRAL. Nearly central, but not quite.
SUTURE (Lat. suo, I sew). The line of junction of two parts which are immovably connected together. Applied to the line where the whorls of a univalve shell join one another; also to the lines made upon the exterior of the shell of a chambered Cephalopod by the margins of the septa.
SYRINGOPORA (Gr. surigx, a pipe; poros, a pore). A genus of Tabulate Corals.

TABULÆ. (Lat. tabula, a tablet). Horizontal plates or floors found in some Corals, extending across the cavity of the "theca" from side to side.
TEGUMENTARY (Lat. tegumentum, a covering). Connected with the integument or skin.
TELEOSAURUS (Gr. teleios, perfect; saura, lizard). An extinct genus of Crocodilian Reptiles.
TELEOSTEI (Gr. teleios, perfect; osteon, bone). The order of the "Bony Fishes."
Page 394 TELSON (Gr. a limit). The last joint in the abdomen of Crustacea; variously regarded as a segment without appendages, or as an azygous appendage.
TENTACULITES (Lat. tentaculum, a feeler). A genus of Pteropoda.
TEREBRATULA (Lat. terebratus, bored or pierced). A genus of Brachiopoda, so called in allusion to the perforated beak of the ventral valve.
TEST (Lat. testa, shell). The shell of Mollusca, which are for this reason sometimes called "Testacea;" also, the calcareous case of Echinoderms; also, the thick leathery outer tunic in the Tunicata.
TESTACEOUS. Provided with a shell or hard covering.
TESTUDINIDÆ (Lat. testudo, a tortoise). The family of the Tortoises.
TETRABRANCHIATA (Gr. tetra, four; bragchia, gill). The order of Cephalopoda characterised by the possession of four gills.
TEXTULARIA. (Lat. textilis, woven). A genus of Foraminifera.
THECA (Gr. theké, a sheath). A genus of Pteropods.
THECODONTOSAURUS (Gr. theké, a sheath; odous, tooth; saura, lizard). A genus of "Thecodont" Reptiles, so named in allusion to the fact that the teeth are sunk in distinct sockets.
THERIODONT (Gr. therion, a beast; odous, tooth). A group of Reptiles so named by Owen in allusion to the Mammalian character of their teeth.
THORAX (Gr. a breastplate). The region of the chest.
THYLACOLEO (Gr. thulakos, a pouch; leo, a lion). An extinct genus of Marsupials.
TRIGONIA (Gr. treis, three; gonia, angle). A genus of Bivalve Molluscs.
TRIGONOCARPON (Gr. treis, three; gonia. angle; karpos, fruit). A genus founded on fossil fruits of a three-angled form.
TRILOBITA (Gr. treis, three; lobos, a lobe). An extinct order of Crustaceans.
TRINUCLEUS (Lat. tris, three; nucleus, a kernel). A genus of Trilobites.
TROGONTHERIUM (Gr. trogo, I gnaw; therion, beast). An extinct genus of Beavers.
TUBICOLA (Lat. tuba, a tube; and colo, I inhabit). The order of Annelida which construct a tubular case in which they protect themselves.
TUBICOLOUS. Inhabiting a tube.
TUNICATA (Lat. tunica, a cloak). A class of Molluscoida which are enveloped in a tough leathery case or "test."
TURBINATED (Lat. turbo, a top). Top-shaped; conical with a round base.
TURRILITES (Lat, turris, a tower). A genus of the Ammonitidœ.

UMBO (Lat. the boss of a shield). The beak of a bivalve shell.
UNGUICULATE (Lat. unguis, nail). Furnished with claws.
UNGULATA (Lat. ungula, hoof). The order of Mammals comprising the Hoofed Quadrupeds.
UNGULATE. Furnished with expanded nails constituting hoofs.
UNILOCULAR (Lat. unus, one; and loculus. a little purse). Possessing a single cavity or chamber. Applied to the shells of Foraminifera and Mollusca.
UNIVALVE (Lat. unus, one; valvœ, folding-doors). A shell composed of a single piece or valve.
URODELA (Gr. oura, tail; delos, visible). The order of the Tailed Amphibians (Newts, &c.)

VENTRAL (Lat. venter, the stomach). Relating to the inferior surface of the body.
VENTRICULITES (Lat. ventriculum, a little stomach). A genus of siliceous Sponges.
VERMIFORM (Lat. vermis, worm; and forma, form). Worm-like.
VERTEBRA (Lat. verto, I turn). One of the bony segments of the vertebral column or backbone.
VERTEBRATA (Lat. vertebra, a bone of the back, from vertere, to turn). The division of the Animal Kingdom roughly characterised by the possession of a backbone.
VESICLE (Lat. vesica, a bladder). A little sac or cyst.

Page 395 WHORL. The spiral turn of a univalve shell.

XIPHOSURA (Gr. xiphos, a sworn; and oura, tail). An order of Crustacea, comprising the Limuli or King-Crabs, characterised by their long sword-like tails.
XYLOBIUS (Gr. xulon, wood; bios, life). An extinct genus of Myriapods, named in allusion to the fact that the animal lived on decaying wood.

ZAPHRENTIS (proper name). A genus of Rugose Corals.
ZEUGLODONTIDÆ. (Gr. zeuglé, a yoke; odous, a tooth). An extinct family of Cetaceans, in which the molar teeth are two-fanged, and look as if composed of two parts united by a neck.
ZOOPHYTE (Gr. zoön, animal; phuton, plant). Loosely applied to many plant-like animals, such as Sponges, Corals, Sea-anemones, Sea-mats, &c.



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