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THE ANCIENT
LIFE-HISTORY
OF THEĀ EARTH

Appendix

TABULAR VIEW OF THE CHIEF DIVISIONS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
(Extinct groups are marked with an asterisk.  Groups not represented at all as fossils are marked with two asterisks.)


INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS.

SUB-KINGDOM I.—PROTOZOA.

Animal simple or compound; body composed of "sarcode," not definitely segmented; no nervous system; and no digestive apparatus, beyond occasionally a mouth and gullet.

CLASS I.GREGARINIDÆ.**
CLASS II.RHIZOPODA.
 
Order 1. Monera.**
" 2. Amœbea.**
" 3. Foraminifera.
" 4. Radiolaria (Polycystines, &c.)
" 5. Spongida (Sponges).
CLASS III.INFUSORIA.**

SUB-KINGDOM II.—CŒLENTERATA.

Animal simple or compound; body-wall composed of two principal layers; digestive canal freely communicating with the general cavity of the body; no circulating organs, and no nervous system or a rudimentary one; mouth surrounded by tentacles, arranged, like the internal organs, in a "radiate" or star-like manner.

CLASS I.HYDROZOA.
 
Sub-class 1. Hydroida ("Hydroid Zoophytes"). Ex. Fresh-water Polypes,** Pipe-corallines (Tubularia), Sea-Firs (Sertularia).
Sub-class 2. Siphonophora** ("Oceanic Hydrozoa"). Ex. Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia).
Page 376 Sub-class 3. Discophora ("Jelly-fishes"). Only known as fossils by impressions of their stranded carcasses.
Sub-class 4. Lucernarida ("Sea-blubbers"). Also only known as fossils by impressions left in fine-grained strata.
Sub-class 5. Graptolitidœ* ("Graptolites").
CLASS II.ACTINOZOA.
 
Order 1. Zoantharia. Ex. Sea-anemones** (Actinidœ), Star-corals (Astrœidœ).
Order 2. Alcyonaria. Ex. Sea-pens (Pennatula), Organ-pipe Coral (Tubipora), Red Coral (Corallium).
Order 3. Rugosa ("Rugose Corals").
" 4. Ctenophora.** Ex. Venus's Girdle (Cestum).

SUB-KINGDOM III.—ANNULOIDA.

Animals in which the digestive canal is completely shut off from the cavity of the body; a distinct nervous system; a system of branched "water-vessels," which usually communicate with the exterior. Body of the adult often "radiate," and never composed of a succession of definite rings.

CLASS I.ECHINODERMATA.
 
Order 1. Crinoidea ("Sea-lilies"). Ex. Feather-star (Comatula), Stone-lily (Encrinus*).
Order 2. Blastoidea* ("Pentremites").
" 3. Cystoidea* ("Globe-lilies").
" 4. Ophiuroidea ("Brittle-stars"). Ex.
" Sand-stars (Ophiura), Brittle-stars (Ophiocoma).
Order 5. Asteroidea ("Star-fishes"). Ex. Cross-fish (Uraster), Sun-star (Solaster).
Order 6. Echinoidea ("Sea-urchins"). Ex. Sea-eggs (Echinus), Heart-urchins (Spatangus).
Order 7. Holothuroidea ("Sea-cucumbers"). Ex. Trepangs (Holothuria).
CLASS II.SCOLECIDA** (Intestinal Worms, Wheel Animalcules, &c.)

SUB-KINGDOM IV.—ANNULOSA.

Animal composed of numerous definite segments placed one behind the other; nervous system forming a knotted cord placed along the lower (ventral) surface of the body.

Division A. Anarthropoda. No jointed limbs.

CLASS I.GEPHYREA** ("Spoon-worms").
CLASS II.ANNELIDA. ("Ringed-worms").
  Ex. Leeches** (Hirudinea), Earthworms** (Oligochœta), Tube-worms (Tubicola), Sea-worms and Sea-centipedes (Errantia).
CLASS III.CHÆTOGNATHA** ("Arrow-worms").

Division B. Arthropoda or Articulata. Limbs jointed to the body.

CLASS I.CRUSTACEA ("Crustaceans").
  Ex. Barnacles and Acorn-shells (Cirripedia), Water-fleas (Ostracoda), Brine-shrimps and Fairy-shrimps (Phyllopoda), Trilobites* (Trilobita), King-crabs and Eurypterids* (Merostomata), Wood-lice and Slaters (Isopoda), Sand-hoppers (Amphipoda), Lobsters, Shrimps, Hermit-crabs, and Crabs (Decapoda).
CLASS II. Page 377 ARACHNIDA.
  Ex. Mites (Acarina), Scorpions (Pedipalpi), Spiders (Araneida).
CLASS III.MYRIAPODA.
  Ex. Centipedes (Chilopoda), Millipedes and Galley-worms (Chilignatha).
CLASS IV.INSECTA ("Insects").
  Ex. Field-bugs (Hemiptera); Crickets, Grasshoppers, &c. (Orthoptera); Dragon-flies and May-flies (Neuroptera); Goats and House-flies (Diptera); Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera); Bees, Wasps, and Ants (Hymenoptera); Beetles (Coleoptera).

SUB-KINGDOM V.—MOLLUSCA.

Animal soft-bodied, generally with a hard covering or shell; no distinct segmentation of the body; nervous system of scattered masses.

CLASS I.POLYZOA ("Sea-Mosses").
  Ex. Sea-mats (Flustra), Lace-corals (Fenestellidœ*).
CLASS II.TUNICATA** ("Tunicaries").
  Ex. Sea-squirts (Ascidia).
CLASS III.BRACHIOPODA ("Lamp-shells").
  Ex. Goose-bill Lamp-shell (Lingula).
CLASS IV.LAMELLIBRANCHIATA ("Bivalves").
  Ex. Oyster (Ostrea), Mussel (Mytilus), Scallop (Pecten), Cockle (Cardium).
CLASS V.GASTEROPODA ("Univalves").
  Ex. Whelks (Buccinum), Limpets (Patella), Sea-slugs** (Doris), Land-snails (Helix).
CLASS VI.PTEROPODA ("Winged Snails").
  Ex. Hyalea, Cleodora.
CLASS VII.CEPHALOPODA ("Cuttle-fishes").
  Ex. Calamary (Loligo), Poulpe (Octopus), Paper Nautilus (Arganauta), Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus), Belemnites,* Orthoceratites,* Ammonites.*

VERTEBRATE ANIMALS.

SUB-KINGDOM VI.—VERTEBRATA.

Body composed of definite segments arranged longitudinally one behind the other; main masses of the nervous system placed dorsally; a backbone or "vertebral column" in the majority.

CLASS I.PISCES ("Fishes").
  Ex. Lancelet** (Amphioxus); Lampreys and Hag-fishes (Marsipobranchii**); Herring, Salmon, Perch, &c. (Teleostei or "Bony Fishes"); Gar-pike, Sturgeon, &c. (Ganoidei); Sharks, Dog-fishes, Rays, &c. (Elasmobranchii or "Placoids").
CLASS II.AMPHIBIA ("Amphibians").
  Ex. Labyrinthodontia,* Cæcilians,** Newts and Salamanders (Urodela), Frogs and Toads (Anoura).
CLASS III.REPTILIA ("Reptiles").
  Ex. Deinosauria,* Pterosauria,* Anomodontia,* Plesiosaurs (Sauropterygia*), Ichthyosaurs (Ichthyopterygia*), Tortoises and Turtles (Chelonia), Snakes (Ophidia), Lizards (Lacertilia), Crocodiles (Crocodilia).
CLASS IV.AVES ("Birds").
  Ex. Toothed Birds (Odontornithes*); Lizard-tailed Birds (Archœopteryx*); Ducks, Geese, Gulls, &c. (Natatores); Storks, Herons, Snipes, Plovers, &c. (Grallatores); Ostrich, Emeu, Cassowary, Dinornis,* Æpiornis,* &c. (Cursores); Fowls, Game Birds, and Doves (Rasores); Cuckoos, Woodpeckers, Parrots, &c. (Scansores); Crows, Starlings, Finches, Hummingbirds, Swallows, &c. (Insessores); Owls, Hawks, Eagles, Vultures (Raptores).
CLASS V. Page 378 MAMMALIA ("Quadrupeds").
  Ex. Duck-mole and Spiny Ant-eater (Monotremata**); Kangaroos, Phalangers, Opossums, Tasmanian Devil, &c. (Marsupialia); Sloths, Ant-eaters, Armadillos (Edentata); Manatees and Dugongs (Sirenia); Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises (Cetacea); Rhinoceros, Tapir, Horses, Hippopotamus, Pigs, Camels and Llamas, Giraffes, Deer, Antelopes, Sheep, Goats, Oxen (Ungulata); Hyrax (Hyracoidea**); Elephants, Mastodon,* Deinotherium* (Proboscidea); Seals, Walrus, Bears, Dogs, Wolves, Cats, Lions, Tigers, &c. (Carnivora); Hares, Rabbits, Porcupines, Beavers, Rats, Mice, Lemmings, Squirrels, Marmots, &c. (Rodentia); Bats (Cheiroptera); Moles, Shrew-mice, Hedgehogs (Insectivora); Lemurs, Spider-monkeys, Macaques, Baboons, Apes (Quadrumana); Man (Bimana).


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